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Author Shechner, T.; Rimon-Chakir, A.; Britton, J.C.; Lotan, D.; Apter, A.; Bliese, P.D.; Pine, D.S.; Bar-Haim, Y. file  url
  Title Attention bias modification treatment augmenting effects on cognitive behavioral therapy in children with anxiety: randomized controlled trial Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 61-71  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety Disorders/*therapy; Attention/*physiology; Behavior Therapy/*methods; Child; Cognitive Therapy/methods; Female; Humans; Male; Treatment Outcome; anxiety; attention bias; attention bias modification treatment (ABMT); cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) is a promising novel treatment for anxiety disorders, but clinical trials have focused largely on stand-alone formats among adults. This randomized controlled trial examined the augmenting effects of threat-based ABMT on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinically anxious youth. METHOD: Sixty-three treatment-seeking children with anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 treatment groups: ABMT + CBT; ABMT placebo + CBT; and CBT-alone. Participants in the 2 ABMT conditions received repeated training on dot-probe tasks either designed to shift attention away from threats (active) or designed to induce no changes in attention patterns (placebo). Primary outcome measures were frequency and severity of anxiety symptoms as determined by a clinician using a semi-structured interview. Self- and parent-rated anxiety measures and threat-related attention bias scores were also measured before and after treatment. RESULTS: Both the active and placebo ABMT groups showed greater reductions in clinician-rated anxiety symptoms than the CBT-alone group. Furthermore, only the active ABMT group showed significant reduction in self- or parent-rated anxiety symptoms. Finally, all groups showed a shift in attention patterns across the study, starting with a bias toward threat at baseline and shifting attention away from threat after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Active and placebo ABMT might augment the clinical response to CBT for anxiety. This effect could arise from benefits associated with performing computer-based paradigms such as the dot-probe task. Given the absence of group differences in attention-bias changes during treatment, possible mechanisms and methodological issues underlying the observed findings are discussed. Clinical trial registration information-Augmenting Effects of ABMT on CBT in Anxious Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial;; NCT01730625.  
  Call Number Serial 1774  
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Author Malani, P.N. file  url
  Title National burden of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Jama Abbreviated Journal Jama  
  Volume 311 Issue 14 Pages 1438-1439  
  Keywords *Cost of Illness; Female; Humans; Male; *Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Staphylococcal Infections/*epidemiology/*microbiology  
  Abstract In terms of both patient numbers and clinical effect, infections associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) present a significant challenge to clinicians. Serious S aureus infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality, with the acquisition of methicillin resistance further limiting therapeutic options. In recent years, so-called community-acquired MRSA strains (USA300 strain) have proven highly virulent and particularly difficult to control.1 As such, novel approaches to MRSA prevention remain a priority.  
  Call Number Serial 1844  
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Author Valles, A.S.; Borroni, M.V.; Barrantes, F.J. file  url
  Title Targeting brain alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in Alzheimer's disease: rationale and current status Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication CNS Drugs Abbreviated Journal CNS Drugs  
  Volume 28 Issue 11 Pages 975-987  
  Keywords Allosteric Regulation/*drug effects; Alzheimer Disease/*drug therapy/metabolism/pathology; Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism; Cholinesterase Inhibitors/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Cognition/drug effects; Humans; Neurofibrillary Tangles/drug effects/metabolism/pathology; Nicotinic Agonists/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/*agonists  
  Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older persons. Pathognomonic hallmarks of the disease include the development of amyloid senile plaques and deposits of neurofibrillary tangles. These changes occur in the brain long before the clinical manifestations of AD (cognitive impairment in particular) become apparent. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), particularly the alpha7 subtype, are highly expressed in brain regions relevant to cognitive and memory functions and involved in the processing of sensory information. There is strong evidence that implicates the participation of AChRs in AD. This review briefly introduces current strategies addressing the pathophysiologic findings (amyloid-beta-peptide plaques, neurofibrillary tangles) and then focuses on more recent efforts of pharmacologic intervention in AD, specifically targeted to the alpha7 AChR. Whereas cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine, together with the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine are at the forefront of present-day clinical intervention for AD, new insights into AChR molecular pharmacology are bringing other drugs, directed at AChRs, to center stage. Among these are the positive allosteric modulators that selectively target alpha7 AChRs and are aimed at unleashing the factors that hinder agonist-mediated, alpha7 AChR channel activation. This calls for more detailed knowledge of the distribution, functional properties, and involvement of AChRs in various signaling cascades-together with the corresponding abnormalities in all these properties-to be able to engineer strategies in drug design and evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of new compounds targeting this class of neurotransmitter receptors.  
  Call Number Serial 1884  
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Author Spellberg, B.; Shlaes, D. file  url
  Title Prioritized current unmet needs for antibacterial therapies Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Abbreviated Journal Clin Pharmacol Ther  
  Volume 96 Issue 2 Pages 151-153  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/epidemiology; *Drug Design; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/*drug effects/physiology; Health Priorities/*trends; Health Services Needs and Demand/*trends; Humans  
  Abstract As a result of declining new antibacterial approvals and rising antibiotic resistance, society clearly needs new treatments for bacterial infections. Specific areas of unmet need evolve over time owing to changes in resistance patterns and treatment strategies. Our goal here is to describe and prioritize the current areas of greatest unmet need for new antibacterial development based on an understanding of the most serious treatment challenges facing patients and their providers today.  
  Call Number Serial 1891  
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Author Khemka, V.K.; Bagchi, D.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bir, A.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Biswas, A.; Basu, D.; Chakrabarti, S. file  url
  Title Altered serum levels of adipokines and insulin in probable Alzheimer's disease Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD Abbreviated Journal J Alzheimers Dis  
  Volume 41 Issue 2 Pages 525-533  
  Keywords Adiponectin/*blood; Aged; Alzheimer Disease/*blood/diagnosis; Blood Chemical Analysis; Female; Humans; Immunoassay; Insulin/*blood; Leptin/*blood; Male; Middle Aged; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Adiponectin; Alzheimer's disease; amyloid-beta; insulin; leptin  
  Abstract Cerebral hypometabolism of glucose, weight loss, and decreased food intake are characteristic features of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A systematic study on the serum levels of adipokines and insulin, the major hormones regulating energy metabolism, food intake, and body weight, in sporadic AD is necessary. The present study compares the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and insulin, measured by commercially available immuno-assay kits, between controls and sporadic AD subjects. The results show a conspicuous decrease in the level of leptin, a dramatic rise in the level of adiponectin, and also a statistically significant increase in insulin level, in the blood of AD subjects, with respect to controls. The changes in the serum levels of adiponectin and insulin in AD are positively correlated with the severity of dementia. Likewise, the serum level of leptin in AD subjects is negatively correlated with the degree of dementia. The changes in the levels of adipokines and insulin have implications in the amyloid pathology, neurodegeneration, and hypometabolism of glucose existing in the AD brain.  
  Call Number Serial 1937  
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Author Pulley, C.; Galloway, A.T.; Webb, R.M.; Payne, L.O. file  url
  Title Parental child feeding practices: how do perceptions of mother, father, sibling, and self vary? Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 80 Issue Pages 96-102  
  Keywords Body Mass Index; Child; Fathers; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers; *Parent-Child Relations; Siblings; Socioeconomic Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires; Child feeding practices; Eating behavior; Family systems; Parent-child interactions  
  Abstract Mothers are important contributors to the development of eating behavior in children, but less is known about the influence of fathers. The purpose of this study was to investigate family perceptions of parental child feeding practices. Seventy two-parent American families including a mother, father, and two biologically related children participated in the study. Participants completed parent and child versions of the Child Feeding Questionnaire that assessed perceptions of parental control in child feeding. Most family member reports were positively correlated, indicating agreement about the use of the examined parental feeding practices; however, some salient differences between the reported behaviors of mothers and fathers were uncovered. Mothers reported using higher levels of monitoring and responsibility than fathers. In addition, fathers and children reported higher levels of paternal pressure related to feeding compared with mothers. Mothers and fathers used more pressure and felt more responsible for feeding younger children compared with older children. One interaction revealed that older male siblings reported the highest level of pressure from fathers. Reported differences in parents' use of child feeding practices suggest that mothers and fathers may have distinct interactions with their children regarding food. Paternal feeding practices are likely to have unique implications for understanding the development of children's eating behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 1939  
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Author Rollins, B.Y.; Loken, E.; Savage, J.S.; Birch, L.L. file  url
  Title Effects of restriction on children's intake differ by child temperament, food reinforcement, and parent's chronic use of restriction Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 73 Issue Pages 31-39  
  Keywords Appetite; Child, Preschool; *Diet; Eating; *Energy Intake; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Inhibition (Psychology); Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting; Parents; Pediatric Obesity/*etiology; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Risk Factors; Social Control, Informal; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Temperament  
  Abstract Parents' use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children's intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch's (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children's (3-5 y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, and to identify characteristics of children who were more susceptible to the negative effects of restriction. The experiment used a within-subjects design; 37 children completed the food reinforcement task and heights/weights were measured. Parents reported on their use of restrictive feeding practices and their child's inhibitory control and approach. Overall, the findings replicated those of and revealed that the effects of restriction differed by children's regulatory and appetitive tendencies. Greater increases in intake in response to restriction were observed among children lower in inhibitory control, higher in approach, who found the restricted food highly reinforcing, and who had previous experience with parental use of restriction. Results confirm that the use of restriction does not reduce children's consumption of these foods, particularly among children with lower regulatory or higher appetitive tendencies.  
  Call Number Serial 1940  
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Author Jiang, N.; Lee, Y.O.; Ling, P.M. file  url
  Title Association between tobacco and alcohol use among young adult bar patrons: a cross-sectional study in three cities Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
  Volume 14 Issue Pages 500  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Health Services; Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Cities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Restaurants; Smoke-Free Policy; Smoking/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/prevention & control; Tobacco; United States/epidemiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Bars and nightclubs are key public venues where young adults congregate and use both tobacco and alcohol, and young adult bar patrons are at high risk for substance use. This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use among a random sample of young adult bar patrons from three different cities in the USA. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected from a random sample of young adult bar patrons aged 18-29 in San Diego, CA (N = 1,150), Portland, ME (N = 1,019), and Tulsa, OK (N = 1,106) from 2007-2010 (response rate 88%) using randomized time location sampling. Respondents reported the number of days they smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol, and binge drank in the past 30 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the association between smoking (nonsmoker, occasional smoker, and regular smoker) and drinking and binge drinking for each city controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education. Predicted probabilities of each smoking category were calculated by drinking and binge drinking status. The association between smoking and drinking and binge drinking among combined samples was also analyzed, controlling for demographic variables and city. RESULTS: Respondents reported high current smoking rates, ranging from 51% in Portland to 58% in Tulsa. Respondents in Tulsa were more likely to report regular smoking than those in San Diego and Portland, with demographic variables being controlled. Young adult bar patrons also exhibited a strong association between smoking and drinking. In general, as the frequency of drinking and binge drinking increased, the predicted probability of being a smoker, especially a regular smoker, increased in each city. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult bar patrons consistently reported a high smoking rate and a strong relationship between smoking and drinking, regardless of the different bar cultures and tobacco control contexts in each of the three cities. While smoke-free bar policies were negatively associated with regular smoking, these policies alone may not be enough to influence the association between smoking and drinking, particularly if tobacco marketing continues in these venues, or in the absence of programs specifically addressing the co-use of tobacco and alcohol.  
  Call Number Serial 1947  
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Author Holder, M.K.; Blaustein, J.D. file  url
  Title Puberty and adolescence as a time of vulnerability to stressors that alter neurobehavioral processes Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology Abbreviated Journal Front Neuroendocrinol  
  Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 89-110  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Animals; Cognition/*physiology; Gonadal Hormones/physiology; Humans; Puberty/*physiology; Sexual Maturation/*physiology; Stress, Psychological; Anxiety; Cognitive function; Depression; Estradiol; Immune challenge; Progesterone; Sexual behavior; Stress; Stress reactivity  
  Abstract Puberty and adolescence are major life transitions during which an individual's physiology and behavior changes from that of a juvenile to that of an adult. Here we review studies documenting the effects of stressors during pubertal and adolescent development on the adult brain and behavior. The experience of complex or compound stressors during puberty/adolescence generally increases stress reactivity, increases anxiety and depression, and decreases cognitive performance in adulthood. These behavioral changes correlate with decreased hippocampal volumes and alterations in neural plasticity. Moreover, stressful experiences during puberty disrupt behavioral responses to gonadal hormones both in sexual performance and on cognition and emotionality. These behavioral changes correlate with altered estrogen receptor densities in some estrogen-concentrating brain areas, suggesting a remodeling of the brain's response to hormones. A hypothesis is presented that activation of the immune system results in chronic neuroinflammation that may mediate the alterations of hormone-modulated behaviors in adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 1973  
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Author Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A. file  url
  Title Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2014 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 36 Issue 10 Pages 940-949  
  Keywords Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity  
  Abstract Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.  
  Call Number Serial 2002  
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