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Author Pistollato, F.; Bremer-Hoffmann, S.; Basso, G.; Cano, S.S.; Elio, I.; Vergara, M.M.; Giampieri, F.; Battino, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Targeting Glioblastoma with the Use of Phytocompounds and Nanoparticles Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Targeted Oncology Abbreviated Journal Target Oncol  
  Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 1-16  
  Keywords Animals; Brain Neoplasms/*drug therapy; *Drug Delivery Systems; Glioblastoma/*drug therapy; Humans; Nanoparticles/administration & dosage/*chemistry; Phytochemicals/*therapeutic use; *Phytotherapy  
  Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are extremely lethal and still poorly treated primary brain tumors, characterized by the presence of highly tumorigenic cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations, considered responsible for tumor relapse. In order to successfully eradicate GBM growth and recurrence, new anti-cancer strategies selectively targeting CSCs should be designed. CSCs might be eradicated by targeting some of their cell surface markers and transporters, inducing their differentiation, impacting their hyper-glycolytic metabolism, inhibiting CSC-related signaling pathways and/or by targeting their microenvironmental niche. In this regard, phytocompounds such as curcumin, isothiocyanates, resveratrol and epigallocatechin-3-gallate have been shown to prevent or reverse cancer-related epigenetic dysfunctions, reducing tumorigenesis, preventing metastasis and/or increasing chemotherapy and radiotherapy efficacy. However, the actual bioavailability and metabolic processing of phytocompounds is generally unknown, and the presence of the blood brain barrier often represents a limitation to glioma treatments. Nowadays, nanoparticles (NPs) can be loaded with therapeutic compounds such as phytochemicals, improving their bioavailability and their targeted delivery within the GBM tumor bulk. Moreover, NPs can be designed to increase their tropism and specificity toward CSCs by conjugating their surface with antibodies specific for CSC antigens, with ligands or with glucose analogues. Here we discuss the use of phytochemicals as anti-glioma agents and the applicability of phytochemical-loaded NPs as drug delivery systems to target GBM. Additionally, we provide some examples on how NPs can be specifically formulated to improve CSC targeting.  
  Call Number Serial 1787  
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Author Fausey, C.M.; Jayaraman, S.; Smith, L.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title From faces to hands: Changing visual input in the first two years Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 101-107  
  Keywords *Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Facial Recognition; Female; Hand; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; *Social Perception; Statistics as Topic; *Visual Perception; *Egocentric vision; *Faces; *Hands; *Head camera; *Infancy; *Scene statistics  
  Abstract Human development takes place in a social context. Two pervasive sources of social information are faces and hands. Here, we provide the first report of the visual frequency of faces and hands in the everyday scenes available to infants. These scenes were collected by having infants wear head cameras during unconstrained everyday activities. Our corpus of 143hours of infant-perspective scenes, collected from 34 infants aged 1month to 2years, was sampled for analysis at 1/5Hz. The major finding from this corpus is that the faces and hands of social partners are not equally available throughout the first two years of life. Instead, there is an earlier period of dense face input and a later period of dense hand input. At all ages, hands in these scenes were primarily in contact with objects and the spatio-temporal co-occurrence of hands and faces was greater than expected by chance. The orderliness of the shift from faces to hands suggests a principled transition in the contents of visual experiences and is discussed in terms of the role of developmental gates on the timing and statistics of visual experiences.  
  Call Number Serial 1801  
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Author Fausey, C.M.; Jayaraman, S.; Smith, L.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title From faces to hands: Changing visual input in the first two years Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 101-107  
  Keywords *Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Facial Recognition; Female; Hand; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; *Social Perception; Statistics as Topic; *Visual Perception; *Egocentric vision; *Faces; *Hands; *Head camera; *Infancy; *Scene statistics  
  Abstract Human development takes place in a social context. Two pervasive sources of social information are faces and hands. Here, we provide the first report of the visual frequency of faces and hands in the everyday scenes available to infants. These scenes were collected by having infants wear head cameras during unconstrained everyday activities. Our corpus of 143hours of infant-perspective scenes, collected from 34 infants aged 1month to 2years, was sampled for analysis at 1/5Hz. The major finding from this corpus is that the faces and hands of social partners are not equally available throughout the first two years of life. Instead, there is an earlier period of dense face input and a later period of dense hand input. At all ages, hands in these scenes were primarily in contact with objects and the spatio-temporal co-occurrence of hands and faces was greater than expected by chance. The orderliness of the shift from faces to hands suggests a principled transition in the contents of visual experiences and is discussed in terms of the role of developmental gates on the timing and statistics of visual experiences.  
  Call Number Serial 1820  
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Author Trueswell, J.C.; Lin, Y.; Armstrong, B. 3rd; Cartmill, E.A.; Goldin-Meadow, S.; Gleitman, L.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Perceiving referential intent: Dynamics of reference in natural parent-child interactions Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 148 Issue Pages 117-135  
  Keywords Adult; Attention/*physiology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Intention; *Language; Language Development; Learning/*physiology; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Perception/*physiology; Vocabulary; Language development; Psycholinguistics; Reference; Word learning  
  Abstract Two studies are presented which examined the temporal dynamics of the social-attentive behaviors that co-occur with referent identification during natural parent-child interactions in the home. Study 1 focused on 6.2 h of videos of 56 parents interacting during everyday activities with their 14-18 month-olds, during which parents uttered common nouns as parts of spontaneously occurring utterances. Trained coders recorded, on a second-by-second basis, parent and child attentional behaviors relevant to reference in the period (40 s) immediately surrounding parental naming. The referential transparency of each interaction was independently assessed by having naive adult participants guess what word the parent had uttered in these video segments, but with the audio turned off, forcing them to use only non-linguistic evidence available in the ongoing stream of events. We found a great deal of ambiguity in the input along with a few potent moments of word-referent transparency; these transparent moments have a particular temporal signature with respect to parent and child attentive behavior: it was the object's appearance and/or the fact that it captured parent/child attention at the moment the word was uttered, not the presence of the object throughout the video, that predicted observers' accuracy. Study 2 experimentally investigated the precision of the timing relation, and whether it has an effect on observer accuracy, by disrupting the timing between when the word was uttered and the behaviors present in the videos as they were originally recorded. Disrupting timing by only +/-1 to 2 s reduced participant confidence and significantly decreased their accuracy in word identification. The results enhance an expanding literature on how dyadic attentional factors can influence early vocabulary growth. By hypothesis, this kind of time-sensitive data-selection process operates as a filter on input, removing many extraneous and ill-supported word-meaning hypotheses from consideration during children's early vocabulary learning.  
  Call Number Serial 1821  
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Author Kim, S.-J.; Chen, Z.; Essani, A.B.; Elshabrawy, H.A.; Volin, M.V.; Volkov, S.; Swedler, W.; Arami, S.; Sweiss, N.; Shahrara, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Identification of a Novel Toll-like Receptor 7 Endogenous Ligand in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fluid That Can Provoke Arthritic Joint Inflammation Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Arthritis & Rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) Abbreviated Journal Arthritis Rheumatol  
  Volume 68 Issue 5 Pages 1099-1110  
  Keywords Animals; Arthritis, Experimental/*immunology; Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*immunology; Blotting, Western; Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects/immunology; Cytokines/genetics/immunology; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Flow Cytometry; Gene Knockdown Techniques; Humans; Macrophages/*immunology; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/*immunology; Mice, Knockout; MicroRNAs/genetics/*immunology; Myeloid Cells/*immunology; Quinolines/pharmacology; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Synovial Fluid/*immunology; Toll-Like Receptor 7/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*immunology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Levels of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR-7) are elevated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the impact on RA is unknown because the endogenous ligand for TLR-7 has not been identified. The aim of this study was to identify a TLR-7 endogenous ligand and to determine its role in the pathogenesis of RA. METHODS: The presence of an endogenous TLR-7 ligand, microRNA let-7b (miR-let-7b), was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Using RA knockdown cells, TLR-7-knockout mice, or antagonist, the specificity of miR-let-7b as a potential ligand for TLR-7 was tested. The mechanism by which ligation of miR-let-7b to TLR-7 promotes disease was investigated in RA myeloid cells by real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We also established the effect of ectopic miR-let-7b expression on arthritic joint inflammation. RESULTS: We found that a TLR-7 endogenous ligand resides mainly in RA synovial fluid macrophages. The GU-rich domain in miR-let-7b was found to be essential for TLR-7 ligation, since miR-147, the positive control for GU, was able to stimulate TLR-7+ myeloid cells, whereas miR-124, the negative, non-GU, control, was not. We demonstrated that miR-let-7b or exosomes containing miR-let-7b could transform the RA and/or mouse naive or antiinflammatory macrophages into inflammatory M1 macrophages via TLR-7 ligation. Consistently, we showed that miR-let-7b provokes arthritis by remodeling naive myeloid cells into M1 macrophages via TLR-7 ligation, since joint swelling and M1 macrophages are absent in TLR-7-deficient mice. CONCLUSION: The results of this study underscore the importance of miR-let-7b ligation to TLR-7 in the joint during the effector phase of RA.  
  Call Number Serial 1915  
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Author West, C.E.; Jenmalm, M.C.; Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Prescott, S.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Probiotics for treatment and primary prevention of allergic diseases and asthma: looking back and moving forward Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Expert Review of Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal Expert Rev Clin Immunol  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 625-639  
  Keywords Animals; Asthma/*therapy; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*therapy; *Immunity, Mucosal; Meta-Analysis as Topic; *Microbiota; Primary Prevention/trends; Probiotics/*therapeutic use; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; *Diversity; *dysbiosis; *eczema; *gut microbiome; *hygiene hypothesis; *primary prevention; *probiotic  
  Abstract Microbial ecosystems cover the surface of the human body and it is becoming increasingly clear that our modern environment has profound effects on microbial composition and diversity. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with allergic diseases and asthma in cross-sectional and observational studies. In an attempt to restore this dysbiosis, probiotics have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. Here, we review treatment and primary prevention studies, recent meta-analyses, and discuss the current understanding of the role of probiotics in this context. Many meta-analyses have shown a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, whereas there is less evidence of a benefit for other allergic manifestations. Because of very low quality evidence and heterogeneity between studies, specific advice on the most effective regimens cannot yet be given – not even for eczema prevention. To be able to adopt results into specific recommendations, international expert organizations stress the need for well-designed studies.  
  Call Number Serial 1932  
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Author Schiefer, M.; Tan, D.; Sidek, S.M.; Tyler, D.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improves task performance in individuals with upper limb loss using a myoelectric prosthesis Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Journal of Neural Engineering Abbreviated Journal J Neural Eng  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 016001  
  Keywords Amputation/*rehabilitation; *Artificial Limbs; Electric Stimulation/*instrumentation/methods; Equipment Failure Analysis; *Feedback, Sensory; Hand/innervation/*physiopathology; Hand Strength; Humans; Prosthesis Design; *Task Performance and Analysis; Touch  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Tactile feedback is critical to grip and object manipulation. Its absence results in reliance on visual and auditory cues. Our objective was to assess the effect of sensory feedback on task performance in individuals with limb loss. APPROACH: Stimulation of the peripheral nerves using implanted cuff electrodes provided two subjects with sensory feedback with intensity proportional to forces on the thumb, index, and middle fingers of their prosthetic hand during object manipulation. Both subjects perceived the sensation on their phantom hand at locations corresponding to the locations of the forces on the prosthetic hand. A bend sensor measured prosthetic hand span. Hand span modulated the intensity of sensory feedback perceived on the thenar eminence for subject 1 and the middle finger for subject 2. We performed three functional tests with the blindfolded subjects. First, the subject tried to determine whether or not a wooden block had been placed in his prosthetic hand. Second, the subject had to locate and remove magnetic blocks from a metal table. Third, the subject performed the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP). We also measured the subject's sense of embodiment with a survey and his self-confidence. MAIN RESULTS: Blindfolded performance with sensory feedback was similar to sighted performance in the wooden block and magnetic block tasks. Performance on the SHAP, a measure of hand mechanical function and control, was similar with and without sensory feedback. An embodiment survey showed an improved sense of integration of the prosthesis in self body image with sensory feedback. SIGNIFICANCE: Sensory feedback by peripheral nerve stimulation improved object discrimination and manipulation, embodiment, and confidence. With both forms of feedback, the blindfolded subjects tended toward results obtained with visual feedback.  
  Call Number Serial 2022  
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Author Foote, H.W.; Hamer, J.D.; Roland, M.M.; Landy, S.R.; Smitherman, T.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Psychological flexibility in migraine: A study of pain acceptance and values-based action Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Cephalalgia : an International Journal of Headache Abbreviated Journal Cephalalgia  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 317-324  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Chronic Pain/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Migraine Disorders/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Migraine; acceptance; acceptance and commitment therapy; disability; headache; psychological flexibility  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Studies of musculoskeletal pain patients confirm that acceptance of pain and values-based action are strong predictors of pain-related disability and that interventions fostering “psychological flexibility” confer positive outcomes. However, data on these processes in migraine remain limited. This cross-sectional study examined relations between components of psychological flexibility and headache among treatment-seeking migraineurs. METHODS: A total of 103 adults (M age = 41.5 (11.9) years; 88.2% female) with ICHD-confirmed migraine (71.8% episodic, 28.2% chronic) across three clinics completed measures of psychological flexibility and headache-related disability. Hierarchical regressions quantified relations between acceptance/values-based action and headache variables after first controlling for pain severity and gender. RESULTS: Acceptance of pain and values-based action accounted for 10% of unique variance in headache severity (DeltaR(2) p = 0.006) and up to 20% in headache-related disability (DeltaR(2) ps = 0.02 and < 0.001) but were weakly related to headache frequency. Psychological flexibility was more strongly associated with MIDAS-measured disability than was headache severity or headache frequency. Significant effects were typically of medium-to-large size and driven primarily by values-based action. CONCLUSIONS: Paralleling results from the broader chronic pain literature, pain acceptance and values-based action play significant roles in headache pain and disability. Further study of interventions targeting these processes may enhance existing treatments.  
  Call Number Serial 2062  
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Author Freedberg, D.E.; Salmasian, H.; Cohen, B.; Abrams, J.A.; Larson, E.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Receipt of Antibiotics in Hospitalized Patients and Risk for Clostridium difficile Infection in Subsequent Patients Who Occupy the Same Bed Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication JAMA Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal JAMA Intern Med  
  Volume 176 Issue 12 Pages 1801-1808  
  Keywords Aged; Antacids/therapeutic use; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*therapeutic use; *Beds; Clostridium Infections/*drug therapy/*transmission; Clostridium difficile; Cohort Studies; Cross Infection/*epidemiology/microbiology; Female; *Hospitalization; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Male; Middle Aged; New York City/epidemiology; Retrospective Studies; Risk; Risk Factors  
  Abstract Objective: To assess whether receipt of antibiotics by prior hospital bed occupants is associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients who occupy the same bed. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients hospitalized in any 1 of 4 facilities between 2010 and 2015. Patients were excluded if they had recent CDI, developed CDI within 48 hours of admission, had inadequate follow-up time, or if their prior bed occupant was in the bed for less than 24 hours. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary exposure was receipt of non-CDI antibiotics by the prior bed occupant and the primary outcome was incident CDI in the subsequent patient to occupy the same bed. Incident CDI was defined as a positive result from a stool polymerase chain reaction for the C difficile toxin B gene followed by treatment for CDI. Demographics, comorbidities, laboratory data, and medication exposures are reported. Results: Among 100615 pairs of patients who sequentially occupied a given hospital bed, there were 576 pairs (0.57%) in which subsequent patients developed CDI. Receipt of antibiotics in prior patients was significantly associated with incident CDI in subsequent patients (log-rank P < .01). This relationship remained unchanged after adjusting for factors known to influence risk for CDI including receipt of antibiotics by the subsequent patient (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45) and also after excluding 1497 patient pairs among whom the prior patients developed CDI (aHR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.43). Aside from antibiotics, no other factors related to the prior bed occupants were associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Receipt of antibiotics by prior bed occupants was associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients. Antibiotics can directly affect risk for CDI in patients who do not themselves receive antibiotics.  
  Call Number Serial 2082  
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Author Shrestha, R.; Trauger-Querry, B.; Loughrin, A.; Appleby, B.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Visual art therapy in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case study Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Neurocase Abbreviated Journal Neurocase  
  Volume 22 Issue 2 Pages 243-247  
  Keywords Adult; Art Therapy/*methods; Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging/pathology; Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome/diagnostic imaging/pathology/*rehabilitation; Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Female; Fluorodeoxyglucose F18/pharmacokinetics; Humans; Photic Stimulation/*methods; Positron-Emission Tomography; Treatment Outcome; Visual Perception/physiology; Prion disease; art therapy; disease progression; patient outcome; sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  
  Abstract This paper describes the diagnostic and treatment utility of visual art therapy in a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Visual art therapy was compared longitudinally with clinical and neuroimaging data over five-month period in an autopsy-confirmed case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of MM2-cortical subtype. Art therapy sessions and content were useful in ascertaining neuropsychiatric symptoms during the course of her illness. Art therapy offered a unique emotional and cognitive outlet as illness progressed. Patients and families affected by sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may benefit from art therapy despite the rapidly progressive nature of the illness. Art therapy can also be useful for assessment of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by healthcare professionals.  
  Call Number Serial 2087  
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