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Author Turner, T.L.; Stevinson, C. file  url
  Title Affective outcomes during and after high-intensity exercise in outdoor green and indoor gym settings Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Health Research Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Health Res  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 106-116  
  Keywords Adult; *Affect; *Environment; Exercise/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Perception; Young Adult; Psychological well-being; affect; natural environments; physical activity  
  Abstract Outdoor exercise settings promote greater psychological well-being than synthetic equivalents, although the influence of the exercise context has not been investigated at high exercise intensities. This study compared the psychological effects of high-intensity exercise in outdoor green and indoor gym settings in 22 adult runners using a randomized repeated measures design. Affect and perceived exertion were assessed before, during, and after a 6000-m run with the second half completed at maximum effort. Perceived exertion and activation increased in a progressive manner from baseline to 6000 m, and decreased during the 10-min recovery post-run. Non-significant reductions in affective valence were observed between 3000 and 6000 m, followed by a significant increase post-run. Outcomes did not differ at any time point between the settings. This study suggested that regular runners experience positive affective responses during and after high-intensity exercise in both a natural outdoor environment and an indoor gym.  
  Call Number Serial 1807  
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Author Dzidic, M.; Abrahamsson, T.R.; Artacho, A.; Bjorksten, B.; Collado, M.C.; Mira, A.; Jenmalm, M.C. file  url
  Title Aberrant IgA responses to the gut microbiota during infancy precede asthma and allergy development Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal J Allergy Clin Immunol  
  Volume 139 Issue 3 Pages 1017-1025.e14  
  Keywords Bacteria/isolation & purification; Bacterial Load; Child; Child, Preschool; Feces/*microbiology; Female; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*immunology/*microbiology; Immunoglobulin A/*immunology; Infant; Male; Allergic disease; IgA index; IgA recognition patterns; asthma; childhood; gut microbiota; microbiome composition; secretory IgA  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Although a reduced gut microbiota diversity and low mucosal total IgA levels in infancy have been associated with allergy development, IgA responses to the gut microbiota have not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the proportions of IgA coating together with the characterization of the dominant bacteria, bound to IgA or not, in infant stool samples in relation to allergy development. METHODS: A combination of flow cytometric cell sorting and deep sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial recognition patterns by IgA in stool samples collected at 1 and 12 months of age from children staying healthy or having allergic symptoms up to 7 years of age. RESULTS: The children with allergic manifestations, particularly asthma, during childhood had a lower proportion of IgA bound to fecal bacteria at 12 months of age compared with healthy children. These alterations cannot be attributed to differences in IgA levels or bacterial load between the 2 groups. Moreover, the bacterial targets of early IgA responses (including coating of the Bacteroides genus), as well as IgA recognition patterns, differed between healthy children and children with allergic manifestations. Altered IgA recognition patterns in children with allergy were observed already at 1 month of age, when the IgA antibodies are predominantly maternally derived in breast-fed children. CONCLUSION: An aberrant IgA responsiveness to the gut microbiota during infancy precedes asthma and allergy development, possibly indicating an impaired mucosal barrier function in allergic children.  
  Call Number Serial 1933  
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Author Gathmann, B.; Brand, M.; Schiebener, J. file  url
  Title One executive function never comes alone: monitoring and its relation to working memory, reasoning, and different executive functions Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Cognitive Processing Abbreviated Journal Cogn Process  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 13-29  
  Keywords Adult; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Thinking/*physiology; Balanced Switching Task; Cognitive control; Executive functions; Monitoring; Working memory  
  Abstract Monitoring is involved in many daily tasks and is described in several theoretical approaches of executive functioning. This study investigated the relative relationship of cognitive processes that are theoretically relevant to monitoring, such as concept formation, reasoning, working memory, and general cognitive control functions. Data from 699 participants who performed the Balanced Switching Task, aiming at capturing monitoring, were used. Subsamples also performed standard tasks assessing the processes assumed to be related to monitoring. Structural equation modeling revealed that general cognitive control processes are particularly relevant. They mediate the relationship between working memory, reasoning, and monitoring. Updating and maintaining information, as well as concluding from information which strategies can guide behavior toward predefined goals, is required for the ability to exert general cognitive control, which again may be relevant for implementing strategies in a goal-directed way. Together, these processes seem to be necessary to adequately monitor behavior in complex tasks.  
  Call Number Serial 2009  
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Author Kahkonen, O.; Kankkunen, P.; Miettinen, H.; Lamidi, M.-L.; Saaranen, T. file  url
  Title Perceived social support following percutaneous coronary intervention is a crucial factor in patients with coronary heart disease Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Journal of Clinical Nursing Abbreviated Journal J Clin Nurs  
  Volume 26 Issue 9-10 Pages 1264-1280  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Coronary Artery Disease/*psychology/therapy; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Patient Compliance; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/*psychology; Quality of Life; *Risk Reduction Behavior; *Social Support; coronary heart disease; emotional support; functional support; informational support; percutaneous coronary intervention; social support  
  Abstract AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe perceived social support among patients with coronary heart disease following percutaneous coronary intervention. BACKGROUND: A low level of social support is considered a risk factor for coronary heart disease in healthy individuals and reduces the likelihood that people diagnosed with coronary heart disease will have a good prognosis. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. METHODS: A survey of 416 patients was conducted in 2013. A self-report instrument, Social Support of People with Coronary Heart Disease, was used. The instrument comprises three dimensions of social support: informational, emotional, functional supports and 16 background variables. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, mean sum variables and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Perceived informational support was primarily high, but respondents' risk factors were not at the target level. The weakest items of informational support were advice on physical activity, continuum of care and rehabilitation. Regarding the items of emotional support, support from other cardiac patients was the weakest. The weakest item of functional support was respondents' sense of the healthcare professionals' care of patients coping with their disease. Background variables associated with perceived social support were gender, marital status, level of formal education, profession, physical activity, duration of coronary heart disease and previous myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals should pay extra attention to women, single patients, physically inactive patients, those demonstrating a lower level of education, those with a longer duration of CHD, and respondents without previous acute myocardial infarction. Continuum of care and counselling are important to ensure especially among them. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study provides evidence that healthcare professionals should be more aware of the individual needs for social support among patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention.  
  Call Number Serial 2058  
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Author Walker, R.W.; Clemente, J.C.; Peter, I.; Loos, R.J.F. file  url
  Title The prenatal gut microbiome: are we colonized with bacteria in utero? Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Pediatric Obesity Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Obes  
  Volume 12 Suppl 1 Issue Pages 3-17  
  Keywords Animals; Bacteria; Delivery, Obstetric; Female; Fetus/*microbiology; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Mothers; Pregnancy; Bacteria; foetal development; gut microbiome; pregnancy  
  Abstract The colonization of the gut with microbes in early life is critical to the developing newborn immune system, metabolic function and potentially future health. Maternal microbes are transmitted to offspring during childbirth, representing a key step in the colonization of the infant gut. Studies of infant meconium suggest that bacteria are present in the foetal gut prior to birth, meaning that colonization could occur prenatally. Animal studies have shown that prenatal transmission of microbes to the foetus is possible, and physiological changes observed in pregnant mothers indicate that in utero transfer is likely in humans as well. However, direct evidence of in utero transfer of bacteria in humans is lacking. Understanding the timing and mechanisms involved in the first colonization of the human gut is critical to a comprehensive understanding of the early life gut microbiome. This review will discuss the evidence supporting in utero transmission of microbes from mother to infants. We also review sources of transferred bacteria, physiological mechanisms of transfer and modifiers of maternal microbiomes and their potential role in early life infant health. Well-designed longitudinal birth studies that account for established modifiers of the gut microbiome are challenging, but will be necessary to confirm in utero transfer and further our knowledge of the prenatal microbiome.  
  Call Number Serial 2081  
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Author Turnbaugh, P.J. file  url
  Title Microbes and Diet-Induced Obesity: Fast, Cheap, and Out of Control Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Cell Host & Microbe Abbreviated Journal Cell Host Microbe  
  Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 278-281  
  Keywords Animals; Cytosol/chemistry; Diet/*adverse effects/*methods; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*drug effects; Humans; *Obesity; cellular memory; diet-induced obesity; gut microbiome; high-fat and high-sugar diets; metabolic disease; metagenomics; metatranscriptomics; microbial dynamics; multi-omics; nutrition  
  Abstract Here I revisit our early experiments published in Cell Host & Microbe (Turnbaugh et al., 2008) showing that a diet rich in fat and simple sugars alters the gut microbiome in a manner that contributes to host adiposity, and reflect upon the remarkable advances and remaining challenges in this field.  
  Call Number Serial 2090  
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Author Chen, C.-H.; Tu, C.-C.; Kuo, H.-Y.; Zeng, R.-F.; Yu, C.-S.; Lu, H.H.-S.; Liou, M.-L. file  url
  Title Dynamic change of surface microbiota with different environmental cleaning methods between two wards in a hospital Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Appl Microbiol Biotechnol  
  Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 771-781  
  Keywords Bacteria/*classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Cluster Analysis; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry/genetics; Disinfection/*methods; *Environmental Microbiology; *Hospitals; Housekeeping, Hospital/*methods; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Metagenomics; Phylogeny; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Taiwan; 16S rRNA metagenomics; Acinetobacter; Environmental cleaning methods; Healthcare-associated infection; Medical intensive care unit; Respiratory care centre  
  Abstract Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics. A total of 36 samples, including 9 samples per sampling time, from each ward were analysed. The clinical isolates were recorded during the sampling time. A large amount of microbial diversity was detected, and human skin microbiota (HSM) was predominant in both wards. In addition, the colonization rate of the HSM in the MICU was higher than that in the RCC, especially for Moraxellaceae. A higher alpha-diversity (p = 0.005519) and a lower UniFrac distance was shown in the RCC due to the lack of daily cleaning. Moreover, a significantly higher abundance among Acinetobacter sp., Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was shown in the RCC compared to the MICU using the paired t test. We concluded that cleaning changes might contribute to the difference in diversity between two wards.  
  Call Number Serial 2098  
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Author Schoenfeld, J.D.; Sibenaller, Z.A.; Mapuskar, K.A.; Wagner, B.A.; Cramer-Morales, K.L.; Furqan, M.; Sandhu, S.; Carlisle, T.L.; Smith, M.C.; Abu Hejleh, T.; Berg, D.J.; Zhang, J.; Keech, J.; Parekh, K.R.; Bhatia, S.; Monga, V.; Bodeker, K.L.; Ahmann, L.; Vollstedt, S.; Brown, H.; Shanahan Kauffman, E.P.; Schall, M.E.; Hohl, R.J.; Clamon, G.H.; Greenlee, J.D.; Howard, M.A.; Schultz, M.K.; Smith, B.J.; Riley, D.P.; Domann, F.E.; Cullen, J.J.; Buettner, G.R.; Buatti, J.M.; Spitz, D.R.; Allen, B.G. file  url
  Title O2(-) and H2O2-Mediated Disruption of Fe Metabolism Causes the Differential Susceptibility of NSCLC and GBM Cancer Cells to Pharmacological Ascorbate Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Cancer Cell Abbreviated Journal Cancer Cell  
  Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 487-500.e8  
  Keywords Animals; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use; Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*pharmacology; Brain Neoplasms/*drug therapy; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/*drug therapy/metabolism/mortality/radiotherapy; Cell Line, Tumor; Chemoradiotherapy/methods; Female; Glioblastoma/*drug therapy/metabolism; Humans; Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology; Iron/*metabolism; Lung Neoplasms/*drug therapy/metabolism/mortality/radiotherapy; Male; Mice, Nude; Oxygen/metabolism; Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/pharmacology; Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays; ferritin; glioblastoma multiforme; hydrogen peroxide; labile iron metabolism; non-small cell lung cancer; oxidative stress; pharmacological ascorbate; superoxide; superoxide dismutase; transferrin receptor  
  Abstract Pharmacological ascorbate has been proposed as a potential anti-cancer agent when combined with radiation and chemotherapy. The anti-cancer effects of ascorbate are hypothesized to involve the autoxidation of ascorbate leading to increased steady-state levels of H2O2; however, the mechanism(s) for cancer cell-selective toxicity remain unknown. The current study shows that alterations in cancer cell mitochondrial oxidative metabolism resulting in increased levels of O2(-) and H2O2 are capable of disrupting intracellular iron metabolism, thereby selectively sensitizing non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and glioblastoma (GBM) cells to ascorbate through pro-oxidant chemistry involving redox-active labile iron and H2O2. In addition, preclinical studies and clinical trials demonstrate the feasibility, selective toxicity, tolerability, and potential efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate in GBM and NSCLC therapy.  
  Call Number Serial 2122  
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Author Newman, L.A.; Kaljee, L.M. file  url
  Title Health Disparities and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in African American Women: A Review Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication JAMA Surgery Abbreviated Journal JAMA Surg  
  Volume 152 Issue 5 Pages 485-493  
  Keywords Africa South of the Sahara/ethnology; Africa, Eastern/ethnology; Africa, Western/ethnology; African Americans/ethnology/genetics/*statistics & numerical data; Anthropology, Medical; Diet; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics/*statistics & numerical data; Female; Health Services Accessibility; *Health Status Disparities; Humans; Incidence; Life Style; Socioeconomic Factors; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/*ethnology/genetics/mortality; United States/epidemiology  
  Abstract Importance: Variation in cancer incidence and outcome has well-documented correlations with racial/ethnic identity. In the United States, the possible genetic and ancestral hereditary explanations for these associations are confounded by socioeconomic, cultural, and lifestyle patterns. Differences in the breast cancer burden of African American compared with European/white American women represent one of the most notable examples of disparities in oncology related to racial/ethnic identity. Elucidating the source of these associations is imperative in achieving the promise of the national Precision Medicine Initiative. Observations: Population-based breast cancer mortality rates have been higher for African American compared with white American women since the early 1980s, largely reflecting declines in mortality that have been disproportionately experienced among white American patients and at least partly explained by the advent of endocrine therapy that is less effective in African American women because of the higher prevalence of estrogen receptor-negative disease. The increased risk of triple-negative breast cancer in African American women as well as western, sub-Saharan African women compared with white American, European, and east African women furthermore suggests that selected genetic components of geographically defined African ancestry are associated with hereditary susceptibility for specific patterns of mammary carcinogenesis. Disentangling health care access barriers, as well as reproductive, lifestyle, and dietary factors from genetic contributions to breast cancer disparities remains challenging. Epigenetics and experiences of societal inequality (allostatic load) increase the complexity of studying breast cancer risk related to racial/ethnic identity. Conclusions and Relevance: Oncologic anthropology represents a transdisciplinary field of research that can combine the expertise of population geneticists, multispecialty oncologists, molecular epidemiologists, and behavioral scientists to eliminate breast cancer disparities related to racial/ethnic identity and advance knowledge related to the pathogenesis of triple-negative breast cancer.  
  Call Number Serial 2123  
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Author Henkenius, K.; Greene, B.H.; Barckhausen, C.; Hartmann, R.; Marken, M.; Kaiser, T.; Rehberger, M.; Metzelder, S.K.; Parak, W.J.; Neubauer, A.; Brendel, C.; Mack, E. file  url
  Title Maintenance of cellular respiration indicates drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Leukemia Research Abbreviated Journal Leuk Res  
  Volume 62 Issue Pages 56-63  
  Keywords Cell Line, Tumor; Cell Respiration/*physiology; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/*physiology; Glycolysis/drug effects/physiology; Humans; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/*metabolism; Oxidative Phosphorylation/drug effects; Aml; Drug resistance; Mitochondrial membrane potential; Respiration  
  Abstract Primary resistance to induction therapy is an unsolved clinical problem in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we investigated drug resistance in AML at the level of cellular metabolism in order to identify early predictors of therapeutic response. Using extracellular flux analysis, we compared metabolic drug responses in AML cell lines sensitive or resistant to cytarabine or sorafenib after 24h of drug treatment to a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line exposed to etoposide. Only drug-resistant AML cells maintained oxidative metabolism upon drug exposure while SCLC cells displayed an overall metabolic shift towards glycolysis, i.e. a Warburg effect to escape drug toxicity. Moreover, primary AML blasts displayed very low glycolytic activity, while oxygen consumption was readily detectable, indicating an essential role of oxidative pathways in the bioenergetics of AML blasts. In line with these observations, analysis of the mitochondrial membrane potential using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester staining and flow cytometry allowed for clear discrimination between drug sensitive and resistant AML cell line clones and primary blasts after 24h of treatment with cytarabine or sorafenib. Our data reveal a distinct metabolic phenotype of resistant AML cells and suggest that disrupting oxidative metabolism rather than glycolysis may enhance the cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy in AML.  
  Call Number Serial 2125  
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