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Author Sale, J.E.; Lehmann, A.R.; Woodgate, R. file  url
  Title Y-family DNA polymerases and their role in tolerance of cellular DNA damage Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol  
  Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 141-152  
  Keywords Animals; Bacterial Proteins--chemistry, metabolism, physiology; Catalytic Domain; DNA Damage; DNA Repair; DNA Replication; Humans; Mutagenesis; Nucleotidyltransferases--chemistry, metabolism, physiology; Protein Binding; Protein Structure, Tertiary  
  Abstract The past 15 years have seen an explosion in our understanding of how cells replicate damaged DNA and how this can lead to mutagenesis. The Y-family DNA polymerases lie at the heart of this process, which is commonly known as translesion synthesis. This family of polymerases has unique features that enable them to synthesize DNA past damaged bases. However, as they exhibit low fidelity when copying undamaged DNA, it is essential that they are only called into play when they are absolutely required. Several layers of regulation ensure that this is achieved.  
  Call Number Serial 456  
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Author Capp, S.J.; Williams, M.G. file  url
  Title Promoting student success and well-being: a stress management course Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Holistic Nursing Practice Abbreviated Journal Holist Nurs Pract  
  Volume 26 Issue 5 Pages 272-276  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Education, Nursing; Health; Humans; Problem-Based Learning; Stress, Psychological; Students, Nursing  
  Abstract Nursing students need to be prepared for a highly complex and challenging profession. This article describes an experiential course where students learn stress management skills and develop a stress management plan. These skills can be used during their nursing education and then transferred to clinical practice.  
  Call Number Serial 461  
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Author Urbanoski, K.A.; Kelly, J.F. file  url
  Title Understanding genetic risk for substance use and addiction: a guide for non-geneticists Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 60-70  
  Keywords Behavior, Addictive--genetics; Family; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Research Design; Risk Factors; Substance-Related Disorders--genetics  
  Abstract There is considerable enthusiasm for the potential of genetics research for prevention and treatment of addiction and other mental disorders. As a result, clinicians are increasingly exposed to issues of genetics that are fairly complex, and for which they may not have been adequately prepared by their training. Studies suggest that the heritability of substance use disorders is approximately 0.5. Others report that family members of affected individuals experience a 4- to 8-fold increased risk of disorder themselves. Statements that addiction is “50% genetic” in origin may be taken by some to imply one's chances of developing the disorder, or that a lack of a positive family history confers immunity. In fact, such conclusions are inaccurate, their implications unwarranted given the true meaning of heritability. Through a review of basic concepts in genetic epidemiology, we attempt to demystify these estimates of risk and situate them within the broader context of addiction. Methods of inferring population genetic variance and individual familial risk are examined, with a focus on their practical application and limitations. An accurate conceptualization of addiction necessitates an approach that transcends specific disciplines, making a basic awareness of the perspectives of disparate specialties key to furthering progress in the field.  
  Call Number Serial 469  
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Author Vermeij, E.J.; Zoon, P.D.; Chang, S.B.C.G.; Keereweer, I.; Pieterman, R.; Gerretsen, R.R.R. file  url
  Title Analysis of microtraces in invasive traumas using SEM/EDS Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Forensic Science International Abbreviated Journal Forensic Sci Int  
  Volume 214 Issue 1-3 Pages 96-104  
  Keywords Bone and Bones--injuries, ultrastructure; Forensic Pathology; Homicide; Humans; Male; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission--methods; Weapons; Wounds, Nonpenetrating--pathology; Wounds, Stab--pathology  
  Abstract Scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a proven forensic tool and has been used to analyze several kinds of trace evidence. A forensic application of SEM/EDS is the examination of morphological characteristics of tool marks that tools and instruments leave on bone. The microtraces that are left behind by these tools and instruments on the bone are, however, often ignored or not noticed at all. In this paper we will describe the use of SEM/EDS for the analysis of microtraces in invasive sharp-force, blunt-force and bone-hacking traumas in bone. This research is part of a larger multi-disciplinary approach in which pathologists, forensic anthropologists, toolmark and microtrace experts work together to link observed injuries to a suspected weapon or, in case of an unknown weapon, to indicate a group of objects that could have been used as a weapon. Although there are a few difficulties one have to consider, the method itself is rather simple and straightforward to apply. A sample of dry and clean bone is placed into the SEM sample chamber and brightness and contrast are set such that bone appears grey, metal appears white and organic material appears black. The sample is then searched manually to find relevant features. Once features are found their elemental composition is measured by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). This method is illustrated using several cases. It is shown that SEM/EDS analysis of microtraces in bone is a valuable tool to get clues about an unknown weapon and can associate a specific weapon with injuries on the basis of appearance and elemental composition. In particular the separate results from the various disciplines are complementary and may be combined to reach a conclusion with a stronger probative value. This is not only useful in the courtroom but above all in criminal investigations when one have to know for what weapon or object to look for.  
  Call Number Serial 472  
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Author Speller, C.F.; Spalding, K.L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Hildebrand, D.; Moore, J.; Mathewes, R.; Skinner, M.F.; Yang, D.Y. file  url
  Title Personal identification of cold case remains through combined contribution from anthropological, mtDNA, and bomb-pulse dating analyses Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Journal of Forensic Sciences Abbreviated Journal J Forensic Sci  
  Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 1354-1360  
  Keywords Age Determination by Skeleton--methods; Age Determination by Teeth--methods; Amelogenin--genetics; Canada; Cephalometry; Child, Preschool; DNA Fingerprinting; DNA, Mitochondrial--genetics; Dental Enamel--chemistry; Dentition, Permanent; Forensic Anthropology--methods; Forensic Dentistry--methods; Humans; Male; Microsatellite Repeats; Osteogenesis; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Populus; Radiography, Dental; Radiometric Dating; Skull; Tooth Apex--growth & development, radiography  
  Abstract In 1968, a child's cranium was recovered from the banks of a northern Canadian river and held in a trust until the “cold case” was reopened in 2005. The cranium underwent reanalysis at the Centre for Forensic Research, Simon Fraser University, using recently developed anthropological analysis, “bomb-pulse” radiocarbon analysis, and forensic DNA techniques. Craniometrics, skeletal ossification, and dental formation indicated an age-at-death of 4.4 +/- 1 year. Radiocarbon analysis of enamel from two teeth indicated a year of birth between 1958 and 1962. Forensic DNA analysis indicated the child was a male, and the obtained mitochondrial profile matched a living maternal relative to the presumed missing child. These multidisciplinary analyses resulted in a legal identification 41 years after the discovery of the remains, highlighting the enormous potential of combining radiocarbon analysis with anthropological and mtDNA analyses in producing confident personal identifications for forensic cold cases dating to within the last 60 years.  
  Call Number Serial 473  
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Author Schulze, K.; Koelsch, S. file  url
  Title Working memory for speech and music Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 1252 Issue Pages 229-236  
  Keywords Auditory Perception--physiology; Feedback, Sensory--physiology; Humans; Learning--physiology; Memory, Long-Term--physiology; Memory, Short-Term--physiology; Models, Neurological; Models, Psychological; Music--psychology; Neuroimaging; Neuronal Plasticity--physiology; Neurosciences; Speech--physiology; Speech Perception--physiology  
  Abstract The present paper reviews behavioral and neuroimaging findings on similarities and differences between verbal and tonal working memory (WM), the influence of musical training, and the effect of strategy use on WM for tones. Whereas several studies demonstrate an overlap of core structures (Broca's area, premotor cortex, inferior parietal lobule), preliminary findings are discussed that imply, if confirmed, the existence of a tonal and a phonological loop in musicians. This conclusion is based on the findings of partly differing neural networks underlying verbal and tonal WM in musicians, suggesting that functional plasticity has been induced by musical training. We further propose a strong link between production and auditory WM: data indicate that both verbal and tonal auditory WM are based on the knowledge of how to produce the to-be-remembered sounds and, therefore, that sensorimotor representations are involved in the temporary maintenance of auditory information in WM.  
  Call Number Serial 478  
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Author Robine, J.-M.; Herrmann, F.R.; Arai, Y.; Willcox, D.C.; Gondo, Y.; Hirose, N.; Suzuki, M.; Saito, Y. file  url
  Title Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Experimental Gerontology Abbreviated Journal Exp Gerontol  
  Volume 47 Issue 9 Pages 660-671  
  Keywords Aged, 80 and over; Agriculture; Climate; Environment; Female; Geography; Humans; Japan; Longevity--physiology; Male; Mortality; Residence Characteristics; Seasons; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of physical geographic factors and climate conditions on human longevity. The centenarian rate (CR) in 2005 was computed for Japan's 47 prefectures, whose geography and climate vary greatly. Several pathways, such as excess winter mortality, land use and agricultural production, possibly linking physical and climate factors with extreme longevity, were explored. The probability of becoming a centenarian varies significantly among the Japanese prefectures. In particular, the computation of CR(70) demonstrated that the actual probability for individuals 70 years old in 1975 of becoming centenarians in 2005 was 3 times higher, on average, in Okinawa, both for males and females, than in Japan as a whole. About three quarters of the variance in CR(70) for females and half for males is explained by the physical environment and land use, even when variations in the level of socio-economic status between prefectures are controlled. Our analysis highlighted two features which might have played an important role in the longevity observed in Okinawa. First, there is virtually no winter in Okinawa. For instance, the mean winter temperature observed in 2005 was 17.2 degrees C. Second, today, there is almost no rice production in Okinawa compared to other parts of Japan. In the past, however, production was higher in Okinawa. If we consider that long term effects of harsh winters can contribute to the mortality differential in old age and if we consider that food availability in the first part of the 20th century was mainly dependent on local production, early 20th century birth cohorts in Okinawa clearly had different experiences in terms of winter conditions and in terms of food availability compared to their counterparts in other parts of Japan. This work confirms the impact of climate conditions on human longevity, but it fails to demonstrate a strong association between longevity and mountainous regions and/or air quality.  
  Call Number Serial 482  
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Author Son, J.-Y.; Lee, J.-T.; Anderson, G.B.; Bell, M.L. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The impact of heat waves on mortality in seven major cities in Korea Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 120 Issue 4 Pages 566-571  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Bayes Theorem; Cardiovascular Diseases--epidemiology, etiology, mortality; Cause of Death; Child; Child, Preschool; Cities; Female; Hot Temperature--adverse effects; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Linear Models; Male; Middle Aged; Republic of Korea--epidemiology; Respiratory Tract Diseases--epidemiology, etiology, mortality; Seasons; Socioeconomic Factors; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Understanding the health impacts of heat waves is important, especially given anticipated increases in the frequency, duration, and intensity of heat waves due to climate change. OBJECTIVES: We examined mortality from heat waves in seven major Korean cities for 2000 through 2007 and investigated effect modification by individual characteristics and heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). METHODS: Heat waves were defined as >/= 2 consecutive days with daily mean temperature at or above the 98th percentile for the warm season in each city. We compared mortality during heat-wave days and non-heat-wave days using city-specific generalized linear models. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to estimate overall effects within and across all cities. In addition, we estimated effects of heat wave characteristics and effects according to cause of death and examined effect modification by individual characteristics for Seoul. RESULTS: Overall, total mortality increased 4.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): -6.1%, 15.4%] during heat waves compared with non-heat-wave days, with an 8.4% increase (95% CI: 0.1%, 17.3%) estimated for Seoul. Estimated mortality was higher for heat waves that were more intense, longer, or earlier in summer, although effects were not statistically significant. Estimated risks were higher for women versus men, older versus younger residents, those with no education versus some education, and deaths that occurred out of hospitals in Seoul, although differences among strata of individual characteristics were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support evidence of mortality impacts from heat waves and have implications for efforts to reduce the public health burden of heat waves.  
  Call Number Serial 486  
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Author Obermeier, C.; Dolk, T.; Gunter, T.C. file  url
  Title The benefit of gestures during communication: evidence from hearing and hearing-impaired individuals Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Cortex  
  Volume 48 Issue 7 Pages 857-870  
  Keywords Adult; Brain--physiology; Communication; Comprehension--physiology; Evoked Potentials--physiology; Female; Gestures; Hearing Loss--physiopathology; Hearing Tests; Humans; Language; Male; Persons With Hearing Impairments; Speech--physiology; Speech Perception--physiology  
  Abstract There is no doubt that gestures are communicative and can be integrated online with speech. Little is known, however, about the nature of this process, for example, its automaticity and how our own communicative abilities and also our environment influence the integration of gesture and speech. In two Event Related Potential (ERP) experiments, the effects of gestures during speech comprehension were explored. In both experiments, participants performed a shallow task thereby avoiding explicit gesture-speech integration. In the first experiment, participants with normal hearing viewed videos in which a gesturing actress uttered sentences which were either embedded in multi-speaker babble noise or not. The sentences contained a homonym which was disambiguated by the information in a gesture, which was presented asynchronous to speech (1000 msec earlier). Downstream, the sentence contained a target word that was either related to the dominant or subordinate meaning of the homonym and was used to indicate the success of the disambiguation. Both the homonym and the target word position showed clear ERP evidence of gesture-speech integration and disambiguation only under babble noise. Thus, during noise, gestures were taken into account as an important communicative cue. In Experiment 2, the same asynchronous stimuli were presented to a group of hearing-impaired students and age-matched controls. Only the hearing-impaired individuals showed significant speech-gesture integration and successful disambiguation at the target word. The age-matched controls did not show any effect. Thus, individuals who chronically experience suboptimal communicative situations in daily life automatically take gestures into account. The data from both experiments indicate that gestures are beneficial in countering difficult communication conditions independent of whether the difficulties are due to external (babble noise) or internal (hearing impairment) factors.  
  Call Number Serial 503  
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Author Hatemi, P.K.; McDermott, R. file  url
  Title The genetics of politics: discovery, challenges, and progress Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2012 Publication Trends in Genetics : TIG Abbreviated Journal Trends Genet  
  Volume 28 Issue 10 Pages 525-533  
  Keywords Animals; Genetic Markers; Humans; Models, Genetic; Politics; Social Behavior  
  Abstract For the greater part of human history, political behaviors, values, preferences, and institutions have been viewed as socially determined. Discoveries during the 1970s that identified genetic influences on political orientations remained unaddressed. However, over the past decade, an unprecedented amount of scholarship utilizing genetic models to expand the understanding of political traits has emerged. Here, we review the 'genetics of politics', focusing on the topics that have received the most attention: attitudes, ideologies, and pro-social political traits, including voting behavior and participation. The emergence of this research has sparked a broad paradigm shift in the study of political behaviors toward the inclusion of biological influences and recognition of the mutual co-dependence between genes and environment in forming political behaviors.  
  Call Number Serial 520  
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