more information
Search within Results:

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author (up) Chilamkurti, C.; Milner, J.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Perceptions and evaluations of child transgressions and disciplinary techniques in high- and low-risk mothers and their children Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 64 Issue 6 Pages 1801-1814  
  Keywords Child; Child Abuse/diagnosis; Child Behavior/psychology; Cognition; Female; Humans; Imagination; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; Maternal Behavior; *Mother-Child Relations; *Mothers; *Parenting  
  Abstract Perceptions and evaluations of children's transgressions (moral, conventional, personal), parental disciplinary actions (power assertion, love withdrawal, induction), and expected outcomes (compliance) were assessed in matched high- and low-risk (for physical abuse) mothers and their children. High-risk mothers and their children evaluated conventional and personal transgressions as more wrong than low-risk mothers and their children. Although both high- and low-risk mothers and their children varied disciplinary responses according to the type of transgression, high-risk mothers used power assertion (verbal and physical force) more often and induction (reasoning and explanation) less often. High-risk mothers also perceived the use of power assertion by others as more appropriate. With respect to outcomes, high-risk mothers, compared to low-risk mothers, expected less compliance following moral transgressions and more compliance after personal transgressions. Children of both high- and low-risk mothers made compliance predictions following moral and personal transgressions that were similar to the low-risk mothers' predictions.  
  Call Number Serial 1732  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Cunnington, R.; Windischberger, C.; Robinson, S.; Moser, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title The selection of intended actions and the observation of others' actions: a time-resolved fMRI study Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 1294-1302  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal--physiology; Attention--physiology; Brain Mapping; Contingent Negative Variation--physiology; Female; Gestures; Gyrus Cinguli--physiology; Humans; Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted; Imagination--physiology; Imitative Behavior--physiology; Intention; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Motor Cortex--physiology; Nerve Net--physiology; Parietal Lobe--physiology; Prefrontal Cortex--physiology; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Set (Psychology); Visual Cortex--physiology; Visual Pathways--physiology  
  Abstract Whenever we plan, imagine, or observe an action, the motor systems that would be involved in preparing and executing that action are similarly engaged. The way in which such common motor activation is formed, however, is likely to differ depending on whether it arises from our own intentional selection of action or from the observation of another's action. In this study, we use time-resolved event-related functional MRI to tease apart neural processes specifically related to the processing of observed actions, the selection of our own intended actions, the preparation for movement, and motor response execution. Participants observed a finger gesture movement or a cue indicating they should select their own finger gesture to perform, followed by a 5-s delay period; participants then performed the observed or self-selected action. During the preparation and readiness for action, prior to initiation, we found activation in a common network of higher motor areas, including dorsal and ventral premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA); the more caudal SMA showed greater activation during movement execution. Importantly, the route to this common motor activation differed depending on whether participants freely selected the actions to perform or whether they observed the actions performed by another person. Observation of action specifically involved activation of inferior and superior parietal regions, reflecting involvement of the dorsal visual pathway in visuomotor processing required for planning the action. In contrast, the selection of action specifically involved the dorsal lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting the role of these prefrontal areas in attentional selection and guiding the selection of responses.  
  Call Number Serial 69  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) de Borst, A.W.; Sack, A.T.; Jansma, B.M.; Esposito, F.; de Martino, F.; Valente, G.; Roebroeck, A.; di Salle, F.; Goebel, R.; Formisano, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Integration of “what” and “where” in frontal cortex during visual imagery of scenes Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 47-58  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Electroencephalography; Female; Frontal Lobe--physiology; Functional Neuroimaging; Humans; Imagination--physiology; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Young Adult  
  Abstract Imagination is a key function for many human activities, such as reminiscing, learning, or planning. Unravelling its neuro-biological basis is paramount to grasp the essence of our thoughts. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions subserving the visualisation of “what?” (e.g. faces or objects) and “where?” (e.g. spatial layout) content of mental images. However, the functional role of a common set of involved regions – the frontal regions – and their interplay with the “what” and “where” regions, has remained largely unspecified. This study combines functional MRI and electroencephalography to examine the full-brain network that underlies the visual imagery of complex scenes and to investigate the spectro-temporal properties of its nodes, especially of the frontal cortex. Our results indicate that frontal regions integrate the “what” and “where” content of our thoughts into one visually imagined scene. We link early synchronisation of anterior theta and beta oscillations to regional activation of right and central frontal cortices, reflecting retrieval and integration of information. These frontal regions orchestrate remote occipital-temporal regions (including calcarine sulcus and parahippocampal gyrus) that encode the detailed representations of the objects, and parietal “where” regions that encode the spatial layout into forming one coherent mental picture. Specifically the mesial superior frontal gyrus appears to have a principal integrative role, as its activity during the visualisation of the scene predicts subsequent performance on the imagery task.  
  Call Number Serial 386  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Howlin, P.; Wing, L.; Gould, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The recognition of autism in children with Down syndrome--implications for intervention and some speculations about pathology Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology Abbreviated Journal Dev Med Child Neurol  
  Volume 37 Issue 5 Pages 406-414  
  Keywords Age Factors; Autistic Disorder/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Child; Communication Disorders/etiology; Comorbidity; Diagnosis, Differential; Down Syndrome/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Humans; Imagination; Interpersonal Relations; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychometrics; Self Care; Stereotyped Behavior  
  Abstract Although autism can occur in conjunction with a range of other conditions, the association with Down syndrome is generally considered to be relatively rare. Four young boys with Down syndrome are described who were also autistic. All children clearly fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for autism required by the ICD-10 or DSM-III-R, but in each case the parents had faced considerable difficulties in obtaining this diagnosis. Instead, the children's problems had been attributed to their cognitive delays, despite the fact that their behaviour and general progress differed from other children with Down syndrome in many important aspects. The implications, for both families and children, of the failure to diagnose autism when it co-occurs with other conditions such as Down syndrome are discussed. Some speculations about possible pathological associations are also presented.  
  Call Number Serial 969  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations: