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Author (up) Cunnington, R.; Windischberger, C.; Robinson, S.; Moser, E. file  url
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  Title The selection of intended actions and the observation of others' actions: a time-resolved fMRI study Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 1294-1302  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal--physiology; Attention--physiology; Brain Mapping; Contingent Negative Variation--physiology; Female; Gestures; Gyrus Cinguli--physiology; Humans; Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted; Imagination--physiology; Imitative Behavior--physiology; Intention; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Motor Cortex--physiology; Nerve Net--physiology; Parietal Lobe--physiology; Prefrontal Cortex--physiology; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Set (Psychology); Visual Cortex--physiology; Visual Pathways--physiology  
  Abstract Whenever we plan, imagine, or observe an action, the motor systems that would be involved in preparing and executing that action are similarly engaged. The way in which such common motor activation is formed, however, is likely to differ depending on whether it arises from our own intentional selection of action or from the observation of another's action. In this study, we use time-resolved event-related functional MRI to tease apart neural processes specifically related to the processing of observed actions, the selection of our own intended actions, the preparation for movement, and motor response execution. Participants observed a finger gesture movement or a cue indicating they should select their own finger gesture to perform, followed by a 5-s delay period; participants then performed the observed or self-selected action. During the preparation and readiness for action, prior to initiation, we found activation in a common network of higher motor areas, including dorsal and ventral premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA); the more caudal SMA showed greater activation during movement execution. Importantly, the route to this common motor activation differed depending on whether participants freely selected the actions to perform or whether they observed the actions performed by another person. Observation of action specifically involved activation of inferior and superior parietal regions, reflecting involvement of the dorsal visual pathway in visuomotor processing required for planning the action. In contrast, the selection of action specifically involved the dorsal lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting the role of these prefrontal areas in attentional selection and guiding the selection of responses.  
  Call Number Serial 69  
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Author (up) Molenberghs, P.; Cunnington, R.; Mattingley, J.B. file  url
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  Title Is the mirror neuron system involved in imitation? A short review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Biobehav Rev  
  Volume 33 Issue 7 Pages 975-980  
  Keywords Frontal Lobe--physiology; Humans; Imitative Behavior--physiology; Likelihood Functions; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neurons--physiology; Parietal Lobe--physiology  
  Abstract It has been suggested that the mirror neuron system provides an important neural substrate for humans' ability to imitate. Mirror neurons have been found during single-cell recordings in monkeys in area F5 and PF. It is believed that the human equivalent of this mirror system in humans is the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (area 44) and the rostral part of the inferior parietal lobule. This article critically reviews published fMRI studies that examined the role of frontal and parietal brain regions in imitation. A meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) revealed that the superior parietal lobule, inferior parietal lobule, and the dorsal premotor cortex but not the inferior frontal gyrus, are all commonly involved in imitation. An additional meta-analysis using a label-based review confirmed that in the frontal lobe, the premotor cortex rather than the inferior frontal gyrus is consistently active in studies investigating imitation. In the parietal region the superior and inferior parietal lobules are equally activated during imitation. Our results suggest that parietal and frontal regions which extend beyond the classical mirror neuron network are crucial for imitation.  
  Call Number Serial 72  
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