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Author Posada, G.; Gao, Y.; Wu, F.; Posada, R.; Tascon, M.; Schöelmerich, A.; Sagi, A.; Kondo-Ikemura, K.; Haaland, W.; Synnevaag, B. file  url
openurl 
  Title The Secure-Base Phenomenon Across Cultures: Children'S Behavior, Mothers' Preferences, And Experts' Concepts Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 60 Issue 2-3 Pages 27-48  
  Keywords Attachment Behavior, Behavioral Science Research, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences, Developmental Psychology, Infant Behavior, Parent Child Relationship, Security (Psychology), Separation Anxiety  
  Abstract Investigated the universality of children's use of their mothers as a secure base. Found that, on average, children in all seven of the countries and contexts studied were characterized as using their mothers as a secure base, but that they differed across cultures in the degree to which their behavior conformed to the definition of a securely attached child. (HTH)  
  Call Number Serial 2012  
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Author Ruokolainen, L.; von Hertzen, L.; Fyhrquist, N.; Laatikainen, T.; Lehtomaki, J.; Auvinen, P.; Karvonen, A.M.; Hyvarinen, A.; Tillmann, V.; Niemela, O.; Knip, M.; Haahtela, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Hanski, I. file  url
openurl 
  Title Green areas around homes reduce atopic sensitization in children Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Allergy Abbreviated Journal (up) Allergy  
  Volume 70 Issue 2 Pages 195-202  
  Keywords Adolescent; Agriculture; Allergens/immunology; Child; Child, Preschool; Environment; *Environmental Exposure; Estonia/epidemiology; Female; Finland/epidemiology; *Forests; *Housing; Humans; Hypersensitivity, Immediate/*epidemiology/*etiology; Immunoglobulin E/blood/immunology; Infant; Male; Microbiome; Microbiota; Odds Ratio; Prevalence; Skin/immunology/microbiology; Young Adult; Proteobacteria; allergen-specific IgE; biodiversity hypothesis; farming environment; skin microbiota  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Western lifestyle is associated with high prevalence of allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory disorders. To explain this association, we tested the 'biodiversity hypothesis', which posits that reduced contact of children with environmental biodiversity, including environmental microbiota in natural habitats, has adverse consequences on the assembly of human commensal microbiota and its contribution to immune tolerance. METHODS: We analysed four study cohorts from Finland and Estonia (n = 1044) comprising children and adolescents aged 0.5-20 years. The prevalence of atopic sensitization was assessed by measuring serum IgE specific to inhalant allergens. We calculated the proportion of five land-use types--forest, agricultural land, built areas, wetlands and water bodies--in the landscape around the homes using the CORINE2006 classification. RESULTS: The cover of forest and agricultural land within 2-5 km from the home was inversely and significantly associated with atopic sensitization. This relationship was observed for children 6 years of age and older. Land-use pattern explained 20% of the variation in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria on the skin of healthy individuals, supporting the hypothesis of a strong environmental effect on the commensal microbiota. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of green environment (forest and agricultural land) around homes was inversely associated with the risk of atopic sensitization in children. The results indicate that early-life exposure to green environments is especially important. The environmental effect may be mediated via the effect of environmental microbiota on the commensal microbiota influencing immunotolerance.  
  Call Number Serial 1985  
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Author Shaheen, S. file  url
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  Title How child's play impacts executive function--related behaviors Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Applied Neuropsychology. Child Abbreviated Journal (up) Appl Neuropsychol Child  
  Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 182-187  
  Keywords Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/rehabilitation; Autistic Disorder/physiopathology/rehabilitation; Child; Child, Preschool; Developmental Disabilities/physiopathology/rehabilitation; *Evidence-Based Medicine; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Infant; Kinesthesis; Learning/*physiology; Play Therapy/*methods; *Play and Playthings; Treatment Outcome; Teams; Tools of the Mind; executive function; interventions; play; self-regulation  
  Abstract Executive functions refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive functioning be impacted by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions impact development of executive function in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively impact executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive function (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream.  
  Call Number Serial 2007  
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Author Kim, H.; Ha, J.-S.; Park, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title High temperature, heat index, and mortality in 6 major cities in South Korea Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health Abbreviated Journal (up) Arch Environ Occup Health  
  Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 265-270  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Child; Child, Preschool; *Climate; Hot Temperature/*adverse effects; Humans; Infant; Korea/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Mortality/*trends; Time Factors; Urban Health/*trends  
  Abstract The authors conducted a time-series analysis to estimate the acute effects of high temperature in 6 cities in Korea and to compare thresholds of temperature on daily mortality among the cities. They examined the association between total mortality and the daily mean temperature and heat index during the summers in Korea from 1994 to 2003. The threshold temperature was estimated to be between 27.0 degrees C and 29.7 degrees C for 4 cities. For a daily mean temperature increase of 1 degrees C above the thresholds in Seoul, Daegu, Incheon, and Gwangju, estimated percentage increases in daily mortality were 16.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.2-18.4), 9.10 (CI = 5.12-13.2), 7.01 (CI = 4.42-9.66), and 6.73 (CI = 2.47-11.2), respectively. These city-specific threshold temperatures and the magnitude of the effects of hot temperature indicate that any analysis of the impact of climate change should take into account regional differences.  
  Call Number Serial 487  
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Author Hoeft, F.; Walter, E.; Lightbody, A.A.; Hazlett, H.C.; Chang, C.; Piven, J.; Reiss, A.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Neuroanatomical differences in toddler boys with fragile x syndrome and idiopathic autism Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Archives of General Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal (up) Arch Gen Psychiatry  
  Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 295-305  
  Keywords Amygdala--pathology, physiopathology; Autistic Disorder--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Brain--pathology, physiopathology; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex--pathology, physiopathology; Child, Preschool; Communication; Developmental Disabilities--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Fragile X Syndrome--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Frontal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology; Genetic Diseases, Inborn--genetics; Gyrus Cinguli--pathology, physiopathology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Infant; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Reference Values; Social Behavior; Stereotyped Behavior--physiology; Temporal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder for which there is no known unifying etiology or pathogenesis. Many conditions of atypical development can lead to autism, including fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is presently the most common known single-gene cause of autism. OBJECTIVE: To examine whole-brain morphometric patterns that discriminate young boys with FXS from those with idiopathic autism (iAUT) as well as control participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, in vivo neuroimaging study. SETTING: Academic medical centers. PATIENTS: Young boys (n = 165; aged 1.57-4.15 years) diagnosed as having FXS or iAUT as well as typically developing and idiopathic developmentally delayed controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Univariate voxel-based morphometric analyses, voxel-based morphometric multivariate pattern classification (linear support vector machine), and clustering analyses (self-organizing map). RESULTS: We found that frontal and temporal gray and white matter regions often implicated in social cognition, including the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal region, temporal pole, amygdala, insula, and dorsal cingulum, were aberrant in FXS and iAUT as compared with controls. However, these differences were in opposite directions for FXS and iAUT relative to controls; in general, greater volume was seen in iAUT compared with controls, who in turn had greater volume than FXS. Multivariate analysis showed that the overall pattern of brain structure in iAUT generally resembled that of the controls more than FXS, both with and without AUT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that FXS and iAUT are associated with distinct neuroanatomical patterns, further underscoring the neurobiological heterogeneity of iAUT.  
  Call Number Serial 17  
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