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Author Moaddab, A.; Dildy, G.A.; Brown, H.L.; Bateni, Z.H.; Belfort, M.A.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, H.; Clark, S.L. file  url
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Title Health Care Disparity and State-Specific Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 2005-2014 Type
Year 2016 Publication Obstetrics and Gynecology Abbreviated Journal Obstet Gynecol  
Volume 128 Issue 4 Pages 869-875  
Keywords Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data; Female; *Healthcare Disparities; Humans; Infant; Infant Mortality; Maternal Mortality; *Maternal-Child Health Services; *Perinatal Care; Pregnancy; United States/epidemiology  
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with differential state maternal mortality ratios and to quantitate the contribution of various demographic factors to such variation. METHODS: In a population-level analysis study, we analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics database and the Detailed Mortality Underlying Cause of Death database (CDC WONDER) that contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Bivariate correlations between maternal mortality ratio and all maternal demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical service utilization characteristics were calculated. We performed a maximum likelihood factor analysis with varimax rotation retaining variables that were significant (P<.05) in the univariate analysis to deal with multicollinearity among the existing variables. RESULTS: The United States has experienced a continued increase in maternal mortality ratio since 2007 with rates of 21-22 per 100,000 live births in 2013 and 2014. This increase in mortality was most dramatic in non-Hispanic black women. There was a significant correlation between state mortality ranking and the percentage of non-Hispanic black women in the delivery population. Cesarean deliveries, unintended births, unmarried status, percentage of non-Hispanic black deliveries, and four or less prenatal visits were significantly (P<.05) associated with increased maternal mortality ratio. CONCLUSION: Interstate differences in maternal mortality ratios largely reflect a different proportion of non-Hispanic black or unmarried patients with unplanned pregnancies. Racial disparities in health care availability, access, or utilization by underserved populations are an important issue faced by states in seeking to decrease maternal mortality.  
Call Number Serial 2252  
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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
openurl 
Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Walker, R.W.; Clemente, J.C.; Peter, I.; Loos, R.J.F. file  url
openurl 
Title The prenatal gut microbiome: are we colonized with bacteria in utero? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Pediatric Obesity Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Obes  
Volume 12 Suppl 1 Issue Pages 3-17  
Keywords Animals; Bacteria; Delivery, Obstetric; Female; Fetus/*microbiology; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Mothers; Pregnancy; Bacteria; foetal development; gut microbiome; pregnancy  
Abstract The colonization of the gut with microbes in early life is critical to the developing newborn immune system, metabolic function and potentially future health. Maternal microbes are transmitted to offspring during childbirth, representing a key step in the colonization of the infant gut. Studies of infant meconium suggest that bacteria are present in the foetal gut prior to birth, meaning that colonization could occur prenatally. Animal studies have shown that prenatal transmission of microbes to the foetus is possible, and physiological changes observed in pregnant mothers indicate that in utero transfer is likely in humans as well. However, direct evidence of in utero transfer of bacteria in humans is lacking. Understanding the timing and mechanisms involved in the first colonization of the human gut is critical to a comprehensive understanding of the early life gut microbiome. This review will discuss the evidence supporting in utero transmission of microbes from mother to infants. We also review sources of transferred bacteria, physiological mechanisms of transfer and modifiers of maternal microbiomes and their potential role in early life infant health. Well-designed longitudinal birth studies that account for established modifiers of the gut microbiome are challenging, but will be necessary to confirm in utero transfer and further our knowledge of the prenatal microbiome.  
Call Number Serial 2081  
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Author Posada, G.; Gao, Y.; Wu, F.; Posada, R.; Tascon, M.; Schöelmerich, A.; Sagi, A.; Kondo-Ikemura, K.; Haaland, W.; Synnevaag, B. file  url
openurl 
Title The Secure-Base Phenomenon Across Cultures: Children'S Behavior, Mothers' Preferences, And Experts' Concepts Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development Abbreviated Journal  
Volume 60 Issue 2-3 Pages 27-48  
Keywords Attachment Behavior, Behavioral Science Research, Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Differences, Developmental Psychology, Infant Behavior, Parent Child Relationship, Security (Psychology), Separation Anxiety  
Abstract Investigated the universality of children's use of their mothers as a secure base. Found that, on average, children in all seven of the countries and contexts studied were characterized as using their mothers as a secure base, but that they differed across cultures in the degree to which their behavior conformed to the definition of a securely attached child. (HTH)  
Call Number Serial 2012  
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Author Shaheen, S. file  url
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Title How child's play impacts executive function--related behaviors Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Applied Neuropsychology. Child Abbreviated Journal Appl Neuropsychol Child  
Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 182-187  
Keywords Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/rehabilitation; Autistic Disorder/physiopathology/rehabilitation; Child; Child, Preschool; Developmental Disabilities/physiopathology/rehabilitation; *Evidence-Based Medicine; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Infant; Kinesthesis; Learning/*physiology; Play Therapy/*methods; *Play and Playthings; Treatment Outcome; Teams; Tools of the Mind; executive function; interventions; play; self-regulation  
Abstract Executive functions refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive functioning be impacted by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions impact development of executive function in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively impact executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive function (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream.  
Call Number Serial 2007  
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