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Author Walker, R.W.; Clemente, J.C.; Peter, I.; Loos, R.J.F. file  url
openurl 
Title The prenatal gut microbiome: are we colonized with bacteria in utero? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Pediatric Obesity Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Obes  
Volume 12 Suppl 1 Issue Pages 3-17  
Keywords Animals; Bacteria; Delivery, Obstetric; Female; Fetus/*microbiology; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Mothers; Pregnancy; Bacteria; foetal development; gut microbiome; pregnancy  
Abstract The colonization of the gut with microbes in early life is critical to the developing newborn immune system, metabolic function and potentially future health. Maternal microbes are transmitted to offspring during childbirth, representing a key step in the colonization of the infant gut. Studies of infant meconium suggest that bacteria are present in the foetal gut prior to birth, meaning that colonization could occur prenatally. Animal studies have shown that prenatal transmission of microbes to the foetus is possible, and physiological changes observed in pregnant mothers indicate that in utero transfer is likely in humans as well. However, direct evidence of in utero transfer of bacteria in humans is lacking. Understanding the timing and mechanisms involved in the first colonization of the human gut is critical to a comprehensive understanding of the early life gut microbiome. This review will discuss the evidence supporting in utero transmission of microbes from mother to infants. We also review sources of transferred bacteria, physiological mechanisms of transfer and modifiers of maternal microbiomes and their potential role in early life infant health. Well-designed longitudinal birth studies that account for established modifiers of the gut microbiome are challenging, but will be necessary to confirm in utero transfer and further our knowledge of the prenatal microbiome.  
Call Number Serial 2081  
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Author Fausey, C.M.; Jayaraman, S.; Smith, L.B. file  url
openurl 
Title From faces to hands: Changing visual input in the first two years Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
Volume 152 Issue Pages 101-107  
Keywords *Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Facial Recognition; Female; Hand; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; *Social Perception; Statistics as Topic; *Visual Perception; *Egocentric vision; *Faces; *Hands; *Head camera; *Infancy; *Scene statistics  
Abstract Human development takes place in a social context. Two pervasive sources of social information are faces and hands. Here, we provide the first report of the visual frequency of faces and hands in the everyday scenes available to infants. These scenes were collected by having infants wear head cameras during unconstrained everyday activities. Our corpus of 143hours of infant-perspective scenes, collected from 34 infants aged 1month to 2years, was sampled for analysis at 1/5Hz. The major finding from this corpus is that the faces and hands of social partners are not equally available throughout the first two years of life. Instead, there is an earlier period of dense face input and a later period of dense hand input. At all ages, hands in these scenes were primarily in contact with objects and the spatio-temporal co-occurrence of hands and faces was greater than expected by chance. The orderliness of the shift from faces to hands suggests a principled transition in the contents of visual experiences and is discussed in terms of the role of developmental gates on the timing and statistics of visual experiences.  
Call Number Serial 1820  
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Author Fausey, C.M.; Jayaraman, S.; Smith, L.B. file  url
openurl 
Title From faces to hands: Changing visual input in the first two years Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
Volume 152 Issue Pages 101-107  
Keywords *Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Facial Recognition; Female; Hand; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Photic Stimulation; *Social Perception; Statistics as Topic; *Visual Perception; *Egocentric vision; *Faces; *Hands; *Head camera; *Infancy; *Scene statistics  
Abstract Human development takes place in a social context. Two pervasive sources of social information are faces and hands. Here, we provide the first report of the visual frequency of faces and hands in the everyday scenes available to infants. These scenes were collected by having infants wear head cameras during unconstrained everyday activities. Our corpus of 143hours of infant-perspective scenes, collected from 34 infants aged 1month to 2years, was sampled for analysis at 1/5Hz. The major finding from this corpus is that the faces and hands of social partners are not equally available throughout the first two years of life. Instead, there is an earlier period of dense face input and a later period of dense hand input. At all ages, hands in these scenes were primarily in contact with objects and the spatio-temporal co-occurrence of hands and faces was greater than expected by chance. The orderliness of the shift from faces to hands suggests a principled transition in the contents of visual experiences and is discussed in terms of the role of developmental gates on the timing and statistics of visual experiences.  
Call Number Serial 1801  
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Author Buffet-Bataillon, S.; Rabier, V.; Betremieux, P.; Beuchee, A.; Bauer, M.; Pladys, P.; Le Gall, E.; Cormier, M.; Jolivet-Gougeon, A. file  url
openurl 
Title Outbreak of Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit: contaminated unmedicated liquid soap and risk factors Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication The Journal of Hospital Infection Abbreviated Journal J Hosp Infect  
Volume 72 Issue 1 Pages 17-22  
Keywords Bacterial Typing Techniques; Case-Control Studies; Cross Infection/*epidemiology/microbiology; DNA Fingerprinting; DNA, Bacterial/genetics; *Disease Outbreaks; Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field; *Environmental Microbiology; Female; Genotype; Hand Disinfection/methods; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Infection Control/methods; Intensive Care Units, Neonatal; Male; Risk Factors; Serratia Infections/*epidemiology/microbiology; Serratia marcescens/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; *Soaps  
Abstract This study describes an outbreak of Serratia marcescens and its investigation and control in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). During a three-month period, five infants were colonised or infected by a single strain of S. marcescens. A case-control study, culture surveys and pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis implicated a bottle soap dispenser as a reservoir of S. marcescens (P=0.032). Infants with S. marcescens colonisation or infection were also more likely to have been exposed to a central or percutaneous venous catheter (P=0.05) and had had longer exposure to endotracheal intubation (P=0.05). Soap dispensers are used in many hospitals and may be an unrecognised source of nosocomial infections. This potential source of infection could be reduced by using 'airless' dispensers which have no air intake for the distribution of soap. Prompt intervention and strict adherence to alcoholic hand disinfection were the key factors that led to the successful control of this outbreak.  
Call Number Serial 1655  
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Author de Jong, A.; Dondorp, W.J.; Frints, S.G.M.; de Die-Smulders, C.E.M.; de Wert, G.M.W.R. file  url
openurl 
Title Advances in prenatal screening: the ethical dimension Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Nature Reviews. Genetics Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Genet  
Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages 657-663  
Keywords Abortion, Eugenic; Aneuploidy; Child; *Chromosome Aberrations; Ethics, Medical; Female; Genetic Association Studies/*methods; Genetic Testing; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Karyotyping; Neonatal Screening/*ethics; Patient Rights/ethics; Pregnancy; Prenatal Diagnosis/ethics/methods; Sequence Analysis, DNA  
Abstract Prenatal screening strategies are undergoing rapid changes owing to the introduction of new testing techniques. The overall tendency is towards broadening the scope of prenatal testing through increasingly sensitive ultrasound scans and genome-wide molecular tests. In addition, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis is likely to be introduced in the near future. These developments raise important ethical questions concerning meaningful reproductive choice, the autonomy rights of future children, equity of access and the proportionality of testing.  
Call Number Serial 1356  
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