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Author (up) Burt, S.A.; Barnes, A.R.; McGue, M.; Iacono, W.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Developmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1668-1677  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adoption/psychology; Aggression/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Causality; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Female; Genotype; Humans; Internal-External Control; Juvenile Delinquency/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Male; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Social Environment  
  Abstract Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.  
  Call Number Serial 293  
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Author (up) Ehringer, M.A.; Rhee, S.H.; Young, S.; Corley, R.; Hewitt, J.K. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Genetic and environmental contributions to common psychopathologies of childhood and adolescence: a study of twins and their siblings Type
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology/methods; Adult; Biometry/methods; Child; Child Psychology/methods; Colorado/epidemiology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*psychology; Humans; Internal-External Control; Male; Mental Disorders/epidemiology/*genetics/*psychology; Prevalence; Self Disclosure; Sex Factors; Siblings/*psychology; *Social Environment  
  Abstract We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female adolescent (12-19 years) twin pairs and 426 siblings. Prevalence statistics for past year and lifetime reports confirm differences between genders for CD, GAD, SAD, and MDD, and a lack of differences between twins and their non-twin siblings. Biometrical modeling was conducted to ascertain the relative influences of genes, and shared and non-shared environments contributing to these disorders. A more robust estimate of these parameters was obtained by including non-twin siblings. Age-specific thresholds were integrated into the analyses to appropriately model the developmental patterns of behavior. We found evidence for both genetic and non-shared environmental influences for all disorders. Shared environmental influences also seem to be important for MDD and lifetime GAD.  
  Call Number Serial 98  
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Author (up) Killgore, W.D.S.; Kahn-Greene, E.T.; Lipizzi, E.L.; Newman, R.A.; Kamimori, G.H.; Balkin, T.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills Type
  Year 2008 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 517-526  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological/drug effects; Adolescent; Adult; Assertiveness; *Awareness; Caffeine/administration & dosage; Culture; Defense Mechanisms; Double-Blind Method; *Emotions; Empathy; Female; Humans; Internal-External Control; Interpersonal Relations; Male; Personality Inventory; *Problem Solving/drug effects; Self Concept; Sleep Deprivation/drug therapy/*psychology; Superstitions/psychology; *Thinking; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi) and the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) at rested baseline and again after 55.5 and 58 h of continuous wakefulness, respectively. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, sleep deprivation was associated with lower scores on Total EQ (decreased global emotional intelligence), Intrapersonal functioning (reduced self-regard, assertiveness, sense of independence, and self-actualization), Interpersonal functioning (reduced empathy toward others and quality of interpersonal relationships), Stress Management skills (reduced impulse control and difficulty with delay of gratification), and Behavioral Coping (reduced positive thinking and action orientation). Esoteric Thinking (greater reliance on formal superstitions and magical thinking processes) was increased. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with the neurobehavioral model suggesting that sleep loss produces temporary changes in cerebral metabolism, cognition, emotion, and behavior consistent with mild prefrontal lobe dysfunction.  
  Call Number Serial 264  
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Author (up) Kim, E.J.; Namkoong, K.; Ku, T.; Kim, S.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication European Psychiatry : the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists Abbreviated Journal Eur Psychiatry  
  Volume 23 Issue 3 Pages 212-218  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aggression/*psychology; Behavior, Addictive/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; *Internal-External Control; *Internet; Korea; Male; Personality Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Video Games  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits, which are known as the psychological characteristics linked to “at-risk” populations for online game addiction. METHOD: A total of 1471 online game users (males 82.7%, females 17.3%, mean age 21.30+/-4.96) participated in this study and were asked to complete several self-report measures using an online response method. Questionnaires included demographic information and game use-related characteristics of the samples, the online game addiction scale (modified from Young's Internet addiction scale), the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire, a self-control scale, and the narcissistic personality disorder scale. RESULTS: Our results indicated that aggression and narcissistic personality traits are positively correlated with online game addiction, whereas self-control is negatively correlated with online game addiction (p<0.001). In addition, a multiple regression analysis revealed that the extent of online game addiction could be predicted based on the person's narcissistic personality traits, aggression, self-control, interpersonal relationship, and occupation. However, only 20% of the variance in behavioral consequences was explained with the model. CONCLUSION: An interesting profile has emerged from the results of this study, suggesting that certain psychological characteristics such as aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits may predispose some individuals to become addicted to online games. This result will deepen our understanding of the “at-risk” population for online game addiction and provide basic information that can contribute to developing a prevention program for people who are addicted to online games.  
  Call Number Serial 1491  
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