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Author (up) Arai, L.
Title Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: qualitative findings from research in English communities Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Health & Place Abbreviated Journal Health Place
Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 87-98
Keywords Abortion, Induced/utilization; Adolescent; Adult; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Birth Rate; England; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Mothers/education/psychology; *Peer Group; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*ethnology/psychology; Qualitative Research; Residence Characteristics/*classification; *Social Class; *Social Conformity; Social Values/ethnology; Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy to fertility among 15 young mothers in three English locations. Data were also collected from nine local health workers. The findings show that, from the mothers' perspective, there was no evidence that peers influenced behaviour. However, the data did suggest that early childbearing might be normative in some communities.
Call Number Serial 1343
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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M.
Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act
Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246
Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States
Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.
Call Number Serial 1292
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Author (up) Caspers, K.M.; Yucuis, R.; Troutman, B.; Spinks, R.
Title Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy Abbreviated Journal Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy
Volume 1 Issue Pages 32
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adoption/*psychology; Adult; Aged; Behavior; Community Mental Health Services/*utilization; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; *Object Attachment; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Patient Participation/*statistics & numerical data; Psychometrics; Stress, Psychological; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/*psychology/*therapy; Young Adult
Abstract BACKGROUND: Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. METHODS: Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208). The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. RESULTS: Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.
Call Number Serial 1721
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Author (up) Chen, P.; Jacobson, K.C.
Title Developmental trajectories of substance use from early adolescence to young adulthood: gender and racial/ethnic differences Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health
Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 154-163
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Sex Factors; Substance-Related Disorders--ethnology, etiology; United States; Young Adult
Abstract PURPOSE: The current study examined gender and racial/ethnic (Hispanics, non-Hispanic Caucasians, non-Hispanic African Americans, and non-Hispanic Asians) differences in developmental trajectories of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use from early adolescence to young adulthood using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 20,160) reported rates of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use between the ages of 12 and 34 years. Data analyses were completed using longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses. RESULTS: Levels of substance use increased from early adolescence to mid-20s, and then declined thereafter. Females showed higher levels of substance use in early adolescence, although males exhibited greater changes overtime and higher levels of use in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Overall, Hispanic youth had higher initial rates of substance use, whereas Caucasian adolescents showed higher rates of change and had the highest levels of substance use from mid-adolescence through the early 30s. Racial/ethnic differences largely disappeared after age 30, except that African Americans showed higher final levels of smoking and marijuana use than the other racial/ethnic groups. Results provide evidence for both similarities and differences in general patterns of development and in gender and racial/ethnic differences across different forms of substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the current study suggest that the critical periods for intervention and prevention of substance use may differ across gender and race/ethnicity, and that future research needs to identify common and unique mechanisms underlying developmental patterns of different forms of substance use.
Call Number Serial 369
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Author (up) Izumi, B.T.; Alaimo, K.; Hamm, M.W.
Title Farm-to-school programs: perspectives of school food service professionals Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior Abbreviated Journal J Nutr Educ Behav
Volume 42 Issue 2 Pages 83-91
Keywords Administrative Personnel/*psychology; Adult; *Agriculture; *Attitude to Health; Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Costs and Cost Analysis; Crops, Agricultural/economics/standards; Female; *Food Services/organization & administration; Fruit/economics/supply & distribution; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Male; *Motivation; Schools; Students/psychology; Vegetables/economics/supply & distribution; Workforce
Abstract OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study used a case study approach to explore the potential of farm-to-school programs to simultaneously improve children's diets and provide farmers with viable market opportunities. DESIGN: Semistructured interviews were the primary data collection strategy. SETTING: Seven farm-to-school programs in the Upper Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Seven school food service professionals, 7 farmers, and 4 food distributors recruited from 7 farm-to-school programs. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: Interviews probed why farmers, school food service professionals, and food distributors participate in farm-to-school programs and how they characterize the opportunities and challenges to local school food procurement. ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using thematic coding and data displays. RESULTS: School food service professionals described 3 motivators for buying locally grown food for their cafeterias: (1) “The students like it,” (2) “The price is right,” and (3) “We're helping our local farmer.” Students' preference for locally grown food was related to food quality, influence of school staff, and relationships with farmers. Buying food directly from farmers and wholesalers was associated with lower prices and flexible specifications, and the “local feel.” CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Understanding school food service professionals' motivations for buying locally grown food is critical to the sustainability of farm-to-school programs.

Subject headings: administrative personnel/*psychology; adult; *agriculture; *attitude to health; child; child nutritional physiological phenomena/physiology; costs and cost analysis; crops, agricultural/economics/standards; female; *food services/organization & administration; fruit/economics/supply & distribution; humans; interviews as topic; male; *motivation; schools; students/psychology; vegetables/economics/supply & distribution; workforce

Keywords: farm-to-school programs: perspectives of school food service professionals
Call Number Serial 2919
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Author (up) Launiala, A.; Kulmala, T.
Title The importance of understanding the local context: women's perceptions and knowledge concerning malaria in pregnancy in rural Malawi Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Acta Tropica Abbreviated Journal Acta Trop
Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 111-117
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Malaria/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Malawi; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/*ethnology/parasitology/*prevention & control; Questionnaires; Rural Population
Abstract A current problem of malaria prevention programmes is that not enough attention is paid to understanding the local socio-cultural context prior to programme implementation. The aim of this study is to discover how Yao women in rural Malawi understand and explain malaria in pregnancy, how they perceive it and what type of knowledge they have on it. Women's knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy is also investigated. At first phase a total of 34 in-depth interviews were conducted. At second phase a KAP survey (n=248) was conducted for cross-validation of the qualitative information. The findings showed that there is neither a vernacular word for malaria nor malaria in pregnancy. Women used a local word, malungo, to refer to malaria. Malungo is an ambiguous disease term because of its multiple meanings which are used interchangeably to refer to many types of feverish illnesses of various causes, not only malaria. Most women did not perceive malungo during pregnancy as a serious illness. There were several other diseases from anaemia, STDs to cholera etc. that were perceived to be more dangerous than malungo. The local meaning of malungo also entailed an assumption that it is a common but fairly harmless illness. Women had limited knowledge of the adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy, the best-known adverse effect being miscarriage (28%, 52/189). A socio-cultural understanding of the implementation context is prerequisite for planning meaningful programmes for the pregnant women in rural Africa.
Call Number Serial 164
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Author (up) Nexo, M.A.; Watt, T.; Cleal, B.; Hegedus, L.; Bonnema, S.J.; Rasmussen, A.K.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Bjorner, J.B.
Title Exploring the experiences of people with hypo- and hyperthyroidism Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Qualitative Health Research Abbreviated Journal Qual Health Res
Volume 25 Issue 7 Pages 945-953
Keywords Adult; Chronic Disease; Denmark; Female; Graves Disease/*psychology; *Health Status; Humans; Hypothyroidism/*psychology; Interviews as Topic; Male; *Mental Health; Middle Aged; Qualitative Research; illness and disease, chronic; illness and disease, experiences; interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA); qualitative analysis; quality of life; rehabilitation; research, qualitative
Abstract Thyroid diseases evoke a complex range of psychological and physical symptoms. The psychosocial aspects of living with diseases causing hypo- or hyperthyroidism are poorly understood. In this article, we report the findings of a qualitative interview study in which we explored the lived experiences of 16 people with hypo- or hyperthyroidism. We purposefully selected participants from Danish outpatient clinics according to their diagnosis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis or Graves' disease with or without orbitopathy), age (18 to 65 years), and duration of treatment (more than 6 months). We used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) as a theoretical frame and analytical approach and identified three superordinate themes: losing control over mental and physical states, ambiguous signs of disease, and negotiating sickness. We discuss the findings in the context of the recent literature on chronic illness and argue that these themes play an important role in the conceptualization and management of thyroid diseases.
Call Number Serial 2029
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Author (up) O'Donnell, M.L.; Bryant, R.A.; Creamer, M.; Carty, J.
Title Mental health following traumatic injury: toward a health system model of early psychological intervention Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev
Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 387-406
Keywords Cognitive Therapy/methods; Delivery of Health Care/*methods; Disease Susceptibility/diagnosis/psychology; Follow-Up Studies; Hospitalization; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Change Events; *Models, Theoretical; Prevalence; Psychotherapy/*methods; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis/epidemiology/*therapy; Stress, Psychological/etiology/psychology/therapy; Survivors/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Trauma Severity Indices; United States/epidemiology; Wounds and Injuries/complications/*psychology
Abstract In 2005, over 2 million people in the United States of America were hospitalised following non-fatal injuries. The frequency with which severe injury occurs renders it a leading cause of posttraumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related psychopathology. In order to develop a health system model of early psychological intervention for this population, we review the literature that pertains to mental health early intervention. The relevant domains include prevalence of psychopathology following traumatic injury, the course of symptoms, screening, and early intervention strategies. On the basis of available evidence, we propose a health system model of early psychological intervention following traumatic injury. The model involves screening for vulnerability within the hospital setting, follow-up screening for persistent symptoms at one month posttrauma, and early psychological intervention for those who are experiencing clinical impairment. Recommendations are made to facilitate tailoring early intervention psychological therapies to the special needs of the injury population.
Call Number Serial 1163
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Author (up) Roberts, A.L.; McLaughlin, K.A.; Conron, K.J.; Koenen, K.C.
Title Adulthood stressors, history of childhood adversity, and risk of perpetration of intimate partner violence Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication American Journal of Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Prev Med
Volume 40 Issue 2 Pages 128-138
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Adult Survivors of Child Abuse/*psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Domestic Violence/*trends; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Male; Risk Assessment/methods; Sexual Partners/*psychology; *Stress, Psychological; Young Adult
Abstract BACKGROUND: More than half a million U.S. women and more than 100,000 men are treated for injuries from intimate partner violence (IPV) annually, making IPV perpetration a major public health problem. However, little is known about causes of perpetration across the life course. PURPOSE: This paper examines the role of “stress sensitization,” whereby adult stressors increase risk for IPV perpetration most strongly in people with a history of childhood adversity. METHODS: The study investigated a possible interaction effect between adulthood stressors and childhood adversities in risk of IPV perpetration, specifically, whether the difference in risk of IPV perpetration associated with past-year stressors varied by history of exposure to childhood adversity. Analyses were conducted in 2010 using de-identified data from 34,653 U.S. adults from the 2004-2005 follow-up wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. RESULTS: There was a significant stress sensitization effect. For men with high-level childhood adversity, past-year stressors were associated with an 8.8 percentage point (pp) increased risk of perpetrating compared to a 2.3 pp increased risk among men with low-level adversity. Women with high-level childhood adversity had a 14.3 pp increased risk compared with a 2.5 pp increased risk in the low-level adversity group. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with recent stressors and histories of childhood adversity are at particularly elevated risk of IPV perpetration; therefore, prevention efforts should target this population. Treatment programs for IPV perpetrators, which have not been effective in reducing risk of perpetrating, may benefit from further investigating the role of stress and stress reactivity in perpetration.
Call Number Serial 225
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Author (up) Simmons, D.
Title The role of ethnography in STI and HIV/AIDS education and promotion with traditional healers in Zimbabwe Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Health Promotion International Abbreviated Journal Health Promot Int
Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 476-483
Keywords *Anthropology, Cultural; Community Health Workers/*education; Consumer Health Information; Female; HIV Infections/*prevention & control; *Health Education; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Promotion; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Male; *Medicine, African Traditional; Sexually Transmitted Diseases/*prevention & control; Zimbabwe
Abstract This article explores the utility of ethnography in accounting for healers' understandings of HIV/AIDS-and more generally sexually transmitted infections-and the planning of HIV/AIDS education interventions targeting healers in urban Zimbabwe. I argue that much of the information utilized for planning and implementing such programs is actually based on rapid research procedures (usually single-method survey-based approaches) that do not fully capture healers' explanatory frameworks. This incomplete information then becomes authoritative knowledge about local 'traditions' and forms the basis for the design and implementation of training programs. Such decontextualization may, in turn, affect program effectiveness.
Call Number Serial 388
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