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Author Britton, J.C.; Rauch, S.L.; Rosso, I.M.; Killgore, W.D.S.; Price, L.M.; Ragan, J.; Chosak, A.; Hezel, D.M.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E.; Pauls, D.L.; Jenike, M.A.; Stewart, S.E. file  url
Title Cognitive inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 944-953  
Keywords Adolescent; Attention/physiology; Brain Mapping; Caudate Nucleus/physiopathology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Color Perception/*physiology; Corpus Striatum/physiopathology; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/*physiopathology/psychology; Orientation/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Reference Values; Reversal Learning/*physiology  
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. METHOD: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets.  
Call Number Serial 2043  
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Author Shaheen, S. file  url
Title How child's play impacts executive function--related behaviors Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Applied Neuropsychology. Child Abbreviated Journal Appl Neuropsychol Child  
Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 182-187  
Keywords Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/rehabilitation; Autistic Disorder/physiopathology/rehabilitation; Child; Child, Preschool; Developmental Disabilities/physiopathology/rehabilitation; *Evidence-Based Medicine; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Infant; Kinesthesis; Learning/*physiology; Play Therapy/*methods; *Play and Playthings; Treatment Outcome; Teams; Tools of the Mind; executive function; interventions; play; self-regulation  
Abstract Executive functions refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive functioning be impacted by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions impact development of executive function in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively impact executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive function (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream.  
Call Number Serial 2007  
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Author Trueswell, J.C.; Lin, Y.; Armstrong, B. 3rd; Cartmill, E.A.; Goldin-Meadow, S.; Gleitman, L.R. file  url
Title Perceiving referential intent: Dynamics of reference in natural parent-child interactions Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
Volume 148 Issue Pages 117-135  
Keywords Adult; Attention/*physiology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Intention; *Language; Language Development; Learning/*physiology; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Perception/*physiology; Vocabulary; Language development; Psycholinguistics; Reference; Word learning  
Abstract Two studies are presented which examined the temporal dynamics of the social-attentive behaviors that co-occur with referent identification during natural parent-child interactions in the home. Study 1 focused on 6.2 h of videos of 56 parents interacting during everyday activities with their 14-18 month-olds, during which parents uttered common nouns as parts of spontaneously occurring utterances. Trained coders recorded, on a second-by-second basis, parent and child attentional behaviors relevant to reference in the period (40 s) immediately surrounding parental naming. The referential transparency of each interaction was independently assessed by having naive adult participants guess what word the parent had uttered in these video segments, but with the audio turned off, forcing them to use only non-linguistic evidence available in the ongoing stream of events. We found a great deal of ambiguity in the input along with a few potent moments of word-referent transparency; these transparent moments have a particular temporal signature with respect to parent and child attentive behavior: it was the object's appearance and/or the fact that it captured parent/child attention at the moment the word was uttered, not the presence of the object throughout the video, that predicted observers' accuracy. Study 2 experimentally investigated the precision of the timing relation, and whether it has an effect on observer accuracy, by disrupting the timing between when the word was uttered and the behaviors present in the videos as they were originally recorded. Disrupting timing by only +/-1 to 2 s reduced participant confidence and significantly decreased their accuracy in word identification. The results enhance an expanding literature on how dyadic attentional factors can influence early vocabulary growth. By hypothesis, this kind of time-sensitive data-selection process operates as a filter on input, removing many extraneous and ill-supported word-meaning hypotheses from consideration during children's early vocabulary learning.  
Call Number Serial 1821  
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Author D'Hooge, R.; De Deyn, P.P. file  url
Title Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Brain Res Rev  
Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 60-90  
Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Brain/cytology/*physiology; Denervation/adverse effects; Disease Models, Animal; Maze Learning/*physiology; Memory/*physiology; Mice; Nerve Net/cytology/*physiology; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism; Rats; Rodentia/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Space Perception/*physiology  
Abstract The Morris water maze (MWM) was described 20 years ago as a device to investigate spatial learning and memory in laboratory rats. In the meanwhile, it has become one of the most frequently used laboratory tools in behavioral neuroscience. Many methodological variations of the MWM task have been and are being used by research groups in many different applications. However, researchers have become increasingly aware that MWM performance is influenced by factors such as apparatus or training procedure as well as by the characteristics of the experimental animals (sex, species/strain, age, nutritional state, exposure to stress or infection). Lesions in distinct brain regions like hippocampus, striatum, basal forebrain, cerebellum and cerebral cortex were shown to impair MWM performance, but disconnecting rather than destroying brain regions relevant for spatial learning may impair MWM performance as well. Spatial learning in general and MWM performance in particular appear to depend upon the coordinated action of different brain regions and neurotransmitter systems constituting a functionally integrated neural network. Finally, the MWM task has often been used in the validation of rodent models for neurocognitive disorders and the evaluation of possible neurocognitive treatments. Through its many applications, MWM testing gained a position at the very core of contemporary neuroscience research.  
Call Number Serial 1556  
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Author Stancampiano, R.; Cocco, S.; Cugusi, C.; Sarais, L.; Fadda, F. file  url
Title Serotonin and acetylcholine release response in the rat hippocampus during a spatial memory task Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
Volume 89 Issue 4 Pages 1135-1143  
Keywords Acetylcholine/*metabolism; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Hippocampus/*physiology; Male; Maze Learning/*physiology; Memory/*physiology; Microdialysis; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Reinforcement (Psychology); Reward; Serotonin/*metabolism; Space Perception; Time Factors  
Abstract By using in vivo microdialysis we monitored the extracellular levels of acetylcholine and serotonin in the hippocampus of rats performing a spatial memory task. After rats were trained for 10 consecutive days to master a food-reinforced radial-arm maze task, they were implanted with a microdialysis probe in the dorsal hippocampus. On day 12, rats were tested in the maze and acetylcholine and serotonin outputs were monitored before the test, during the waiting phase and while performing the trials. In trained, food-rewarded rats, hippocampal acetylcholine levels increased during the waiting period (181 +/- 90 of baseline) and further increased during the radial-maze performance to 236 +/- 13% of baseline values, while serotonin levels did not change during the waiting period but increased to 142 +/- 3% during the maze performance. To discriminate whether the increase of acetylcholine and serotonin levels during the testing was associated with memory performance or with food consumption, we monitored hippocampal acetylcholine and serotonin release in rats that were trained, but not food rewarded, or in rats that were not trained, but rewarded only on the test day. In the trained, non-rewarded group, acetylcholine release increased during the waiting phase to 168 +/- 6%, but did not increase further during the task performance. In contrast, no change in serotonin release was observed in this group in any phase of the test. In rats which were not trained, but food rewarded, acetylcholine increased only during the maze period (150 +/- 5%). Serotonin increased gradually and become significant at the end of the trials. (130 +/- 3%). While both neurotransmitters could be implicated in feeding behaviour, only activation of cholinergic neurotransmission appears to be associated with memory function. Our results support the following hypotheses: (i) hippocampal acetylcholine could be involved in attentional and cognitive functions underlying motivational processes; (ii) serotonin could be implicated in non-cognitive processes (i.e. in the control of motor and feeding behaviour). Since serotonin and acetylcholine neurotransmission is simultaneously activated during the spatial memory task, this suggests that these neurotransmitter systems regulate behavioural and cognitive functions.  
Call Number Serial 1501  
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