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Author (up) Davis, J. file  url
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  Title The effect of qualifying language on perceptions of drug appeal, drug experience, and estimates of side-effect incidence in DTC advertising Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Health Communication Abbreviated Journal J Health Commun  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 607-622  
  Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*standards; Analysis of Variance; Drug Industry/*standards; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Female; Humans; Likelihood Functions; Male; Patient Satisfaction/*statistics & numerical data; *Persuasive Communication; *Pharmaceutical Preparations; Risk Assessment/*standards; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Terminology as Topic; United States; United States Food and Drug Administration  
  Abstract This study examined how the use of qualifying language in direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising affects consumers' perceptions of drug appeal, anticipated pleasantness of drug usage, and the expected incidence of side-effect occurrence. A sample of 669 individuals participated in a 2 x 8 complete factorial design. The design manipulated the number of side effects associated with drug use and the type of qualifying language used to describe the side effects. The eight experimental qualifying language cells represented one control condition (no qualifying language), three cells where each of three types of qualifying language were presented individually, and four cells where qualifying language was combined. The results indicate that qualifying language has a profound effect on drug perceptions, especially when used in combination. Drug appeal and the anticipated drug-using experience almost always were more positive in the presence of qualifying language. Qualifying language appears to exert its influence by causing individuals to reduce their estimate of the likelihood of experiencing individual side effects. Policy implications of the research, particularly for evaluation of “fair balance” and the reporting of side effects, are presented.  
  Call Number Serial 1390  
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Author (up) Eady, P.E.; Hamilton, L.; Lyons, R.E. file  url
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  Title Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 274 Issue 1607 Pages 247-252  
  Keywords Animals; Female; Fertility/physiology; Genitalia, Female/*injuries; Likelihood Functions; Longevity/*physiology; Male; Semen/physiology; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Weevils/*physiology; Beetle  
  Abstract Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional explanations of polyandry in this species are likely to be complex.  
  Call Number Serial 338  
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Author (up) Galatzer-Levy, I.R.; Ankri, Y.; Freedman, S.; Israeli-Shalev, Y.; Roitman, P.; Gilad, M.; Shalev, A.Y. file  url
openurl 
  Title Early PTSD symptom trajectories: persistence, recovery, and response to treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 8 Pages e70084  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Cognitive Therapy/methods; Cohort Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Israel; Likelihood Functions; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Statistical; Psychometrics; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*diagnosis/*therapy; Symptom Assessment; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. DESIGN: Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. SETTING: Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. PARTICIPANTS: Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED) were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957) were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) between one and nine months. APPROACH: We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41) or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49), starting 29.8+/-5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35) starting at 151.8+/-42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. RESULTS: THREE TRAJECTORIES WERE IDENTIFIED: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample), Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27%) and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%). CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. CONCLUSIONS: The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to understanding the disorder and preventing its occurrence. Studies of the pathogenesis of PTSD may benefit from using clustered symptom trajectories as their dependent variables.  
  Call Number Serial 1307  
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Author (up) Molenberghs, P.; Cunnington, R.; Mattingley, J.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title Is the mirror neuron system involved in imitation? A short review and meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Biobehav Rev  
  Volume 33 Issue 7 Pages 975-980  
  Keywords Frontal Lobe--physiology; Humans; Imitative Behavior--physiology; Likelihood Functions; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neurons--physiology; Parietal Lobe--physiology  
  Abstract It has been suggested that the mirror neuron system provides an important neural substrate for humans' ability to imitate. Mirror neurons have been found during single-cell recordings in monkeys in area F5 and PF. It is believed that the human equivalent of this mirror system in humans is the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (area 44) and the rostral part of the inferior parietal lobule. This article critically reviews published fMRI studies that examined the role of frontal and parietal brain regions in imitation. A meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) revealed that the superior parietal lobule, inferior parietal lobule, and the dorsal premotor cortex but not the inferior frontal gyrus, are all commonly involved in imitation. An additional meta-analysis using a label-based review confirmed that in the frontal lobe, the premotor cortex rather than the inferior frontal gyrus is consistently active in studies investigating imitation. In the parietal region the superior and inferior parietal lobules are equally activated during imitation. Our results suggest that parietal and frontal regions which extend beyond the classical mirror neuron network are crucial for imitation.  
  Call Number Serial 72  
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