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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
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Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Ege, M.J.; Mayer, M.; Normand, A.-C.; Genuneit, J.; Cookson, W.O.C.M.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Heederik, D.; Piarroux, R.; von Mutius, E. file  url
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Title Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
Volume 364 Issue 8 Pages 701-709  
Keywords Adolescent; *Agriculture; Asthma/*epidemiology/immunology; Bacteria/*isolation & purification; Biodiversity; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dust/analysis; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; Female; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*epidemiology/immunology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Microbiome; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires  
Abstract BACKGROUND: Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS: In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. RESULTS: In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).  
Call Number Serial 1983  
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Author Jiang, N.; Lee, Y.O.; Ling, P.M. file  url
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Title Association between tobacco and alcohol use among young adult bar patrons: a cross-sectional study in three cities Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication BMC Public Health Abbreviated Journal BMC Public Health  
Volume 14 Issue Pages 500  
Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Health Services; Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Cities; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Restaurants; Smoke-Free Policy; Smoking/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/prevention & control; Tobacco; United States/epidemiology; Young Adult  
Abstract BACKGROUND: Bars and nightclubs are key public venues where young adults congregate and use both tobacco and alcohol, and young adult bar patrons are at high risk for substance use. This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and alcohol use among a random sample of young adult bar patrons from three different cities in the USA. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected from a random sample of young adult bar patrons aged 18-29 in San Diego, CA (N = 1,150), Portland, ME (N = 1,019), and Tulsa, OK (N = 1,106) from 2007-2010 (response rate 88%) using randomized time location sampling. Respondents reported the number of days they smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol, and binge drank in the past 30 days. Multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the association between smoking (nonsmoker, occasional smoker, and regular smoker) and drinking and binge drinking for each city controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education. Predicted probabilities of each smoking category were calculated by drinking and binge drinking status. The association between smoking and drinking and binge drinking among combined samples was also analyzed, controlling for demographic variables and city. RESULTS: Respondents reported high current smoking rates, ranging from 51% in Portland to 58% in Tulsa. Respondents in Tulsa were more likely to report regular smoking than those in San Diego and Portland, with demographic variables being controlled. Young adult bar patrons also exhibited a strong association between smoking and drinking. In general, as the frequency of drinking and binge drinking increased, the predicted probability of being a smoker, especially a regular smoker, increased in each city. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult bar patrons consistently reported a high smoking rate and a strong relationship between smoking and drinking, regardless of the different bar cultures and tobacco control contexts in each of the three cities. While smoke-free bar policies were negatively associated with regular smoking, these policies alone may not be enough to influence the association between smoking and drinking, particularly if tobacco marketing continues in these venues, or in the absence of programs specifically addressing the co-use of tobacco and alcohol.  
Call Number Serial 1947  
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Author Chen, C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, X.C.; Ci, Y.; Huang, H.; Ma, J.; Chen, Y.; Guan, H. file  url
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Title Driver injury severity outcome analysis in rural interstate highway crashes: a two-level Bayesian logistic regression interpretation Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
Volume 97 Issue Pages 69-78  
Keywords Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; Adolescent; Adult; Automobile Driving/*statistics & numerical data; Bayes Theorem; China; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Theoretical; *Rural Population; Safety/*statistics & numerical data; Seat Belts/utilization; Bayesian inference; Driver injury severity; Hierarchical model; Rural interstate highway; Traffic crash  
Abstract There is a high potential of severe injury outcomes in traffic crashes on rural interstate highways due to the significant amount of high speed traffic on these corridors. Hierarchical Bayesian models are capable of incorporating between-crash variance and within-crash correlations into traffic crash data analysis and are increasingly utilized in traffic crash severity analysis. This paper applies a hierarchical Bayesian logistic model to examine the significant factors at crash and vehicle/driver levels and their heterogeneous impacts on driver injury severity in rural interstate highway crashes. Analysis results indicate that the majority of the total variance is induced by the between-crash variance, showing the appropriateness of the utilized hierarchical modeling approach. Three crash-level variables and six vehicle/driver-level variables are found significant in predicting driver injury severities: road curve, maximum vehicle damage in a crash, number of vehicles in a crash, wet road surface, vehicle type, driver age, driver gender, driver seatbelt use and driver alcohol or drug involvement. Among these variables, road curve, functional and disabled vehicle damage in crash, single-vehicle crashes, female drivers, senior drivers, motorcycles and driver alcohol or drug involvement tend to increase the odds of drivers being incapably injured or killed in rural interstate crashes, while wet road surface, male drivers and driver seatbelt use are more likely to decrease the probability of severe driver injuries. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insightful understanding of the internal mechanism of rural interstate crashes and beneficial references for developing effective countermeasures for rural interstate crash prevention.  
Call Number Serial 1784  
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Author Caspers, K.M.; Yucuis, R.; Troutman, B.; Spinks, R. file  url
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Title Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy Abbreviated Journal Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy  
Volume 1 Issue Pages 32  
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adoption/*psychology; Adult; Aged; Behavior; Community Mental Health Services/*utilization; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; *Object Attachment; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Patient Participation/*statistics & numerical data; Psychometrics; Stress, Psychological; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/*psychology/*therapy; Young Adult  
Abstract BACKGROUND: Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. METHODS: Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208). The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. RESULTS: Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.  
Call Number Serial 1721  
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