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Author (up) Eady, P.E.; Hamilton, L.; Lyons, R.E. file  url
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  Title Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 274 Issue 1607 Pages 247-252  
  Keywords Animals; Female; Fertility/physiology; Genitalia, Female/*injuries; Likelihood Functions; Longevity/*physiology; Male; Semen/physiology; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Weevils/*physiology; Beetle  
  Abstract Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional explanations of polyandry in this species are likely to be complex.  
  Call Number Serial 338  
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Author (up) Pamplona, R.; Portero-Otin, M.; Requena, J.R.; Thorpe, S.R.; Herrero, A.; Barja, G. file  url
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  Title A low degree of fatty acid unsaturation leads to lower lipid peroxidation and lipoxidation-derived protein modification in heart mitochondria of the longevous pigeon than in the short-lived rat Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Abbreviated Journal Mech Ageing Dev  
  Volume 106 Issue 3 Pages 283-296  
  Keywords Aging/*physiology; Animals; Cardiolipins/metabolism; Columbidae; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/*metabolism; *Lipid Peroxidation/physiology; Longevity/*physiology; Male; Malondialdehyde/metabolism; Mitochondria, Heart/*metabolism; Myocardium/metabolism; Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism; Phosphatidylethanolamines/metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Species Specificity  
  Abstract Birds have a maximum longevity (MLSP) much greater than mammals of similar metabolic rate and body size. Thus, they are ideal models to identify longevity characteristics not linked to low metabolic rates. In this investigation, we show that the fatty acid double bond content of total lipids and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin fractions of heart mitochondria is intrinsically lower in pigeons (MLSP = 35 years) than in rats (MLSP = 4 years). This is mainly due to a lower content of the most highly unsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and in some fractions arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). The lower double bond content leads to a lower sensitivity to in vitro lipid peroxidation, and is associated with a lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products in vivo, and a lower level of malondialdehyde-lysine protein adducts in heart mitochondria of pigeons than rats. These results, together with those previously obtained in other species or tissues, suggest that a low degree of fatty acid unsaturation is a general characteristic of longevous homeothermic vertebrate animals both when they have low metabolic rates (mammals of large body size) or high metabolic rates (small sized birds). This constitutive trait helps to protect their tissues and mitochondria against lipid peroxidation and oxidative protein modification and can be a factor contributing to their slow rate of aging. The results also show, for the first time in a physiological model, that lipid peroxidizability is related to lipoxidative protein damage.  
  Call Number Serial 123  
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