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Author (up) Baustian, J.; Mendelssohn, I.; Lin, Q.; Rapp, J. file  url
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  Title In situ burning restores the ecological function and structure of an oil-impacted coastal marsh Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage  
  Volume 46 Issue 5 Pages 781-789  
  Keywords Alkanes/analysis; Biodiversity; Chemical Hazard Release; *Ecosystem; Environmental Monitoring; Environmental Remediation/*methods; Fires; Louisiana; Petroleum/*analysis; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/analysis; Soil/chemistry; Soil Pollutants/analysis; Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis; *Wetlands  
  Abstract As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and below ground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.  
  Call Number Serial 130  
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Author (up) Berzins, D.W.; Bundy, K.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Bioaccumulation of lead in Xenopus laevis tadpoles from water and sediment Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Environment International Abbreviated Journal Environ Int  
  Volume 28 Issue 1-2 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Animals; Body Weight/drug effects; Environmental Pollutants/*pharmacokinetics/toxicity; Fresh Water/chemistry; Geologic Sediments/chemistry; Larva/*chemistry/growth & development; Lead/*pharmacokinetics/toxicity; Louisiana; *Xenopus  
  Abstract The overall objective of this research was to monitor the uptake kinetics of lead in an amphibian model and correlate metal content with embryo development. Based upon the concentration of lead found in the water and sediment of a Louisiana swamp adjacent to a Superfund site, a controlled laboratory experiment exploring lead uptake from water and sediment by Xenopus laevis tadpoles was conducted. For 5 weeks, tadpoles were exposed to water and a simulated sediment, kaolin, spiked with 1, 5, or 10 times the concentration of lead found in field water and sediment samples. Additionally, organisms were exposed to the 5 x condition for 3 and 6 weeks. The experimental controls consisted of unexposed tadpoles and ones exposed to lead originating from water or sediment exclusively. At the end of the exposure periods, developmental data, i.e., body weight and developmental stage, were recorded, and the tadpoles were analyzed for whole body lead concentration. Lead extraction was accomplished by dry ashing, and its amount was quantified polarographically. Results showed that lead inhibited the normal development of these amphibians, in a manner that generally was more severe as exposure level increased. The hindrance of tadpole development also coincided with an increase in whole body lead concentration at higher exposures. Temporally, at the 5 x exposure concentration, the mean lead level increased with time, but this difference was not statistically significant (P<.05). Additionally, control animals exposed to lead (either in water or in sediment) showed no statistical difference with regard to weight and lead uptake, indicating that lead originating from both water and sediment is incorporated into the tadpole. The controlled laboratory experimental protocol used here is thus capable of investigating the uptake of a single metal (Pb in this case) and determining its effect on the development of tadpoles while differentiating the significance of multiple sources of exposure.  
  Call Number Serial 1183  
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Author (up) Marr, J.S.; Cathey, J.T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The 1802 Saint-Domingue yellow fever epidemic and the Louisiana Purchase Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Public Health Management and Practice : JPHMP Abbreviated Journal J Public Health Manag Pract  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 77-82  
  Keywords Animals; Dengue/epidemiology; Epidemics/*history; France; Haiti; History, 19th Century; Humans; Insect Vectors; Louisiana; Yellow Fever/epidemiology/*history/mortality  
  Abstract Epidemics have been pivotal in the history of the world as exemplified by a yellow fever epidemic in the Caribbean that clearly altered New World geopolitics. By the end of the 18th century, yellow fever--then an “emerging disease”--was widespread throughout the Caribbean and particularly lethal in Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti). From 1793 to 1798, case fatality rates among British troops in the West Indies (including Saint-Domingue) were as high as 70%. A worse fate befell newly arrived French armed forces in 1802, ostensibly sent by Napoleon to suppress a rebellion and to reestablish slavery. Historians have disagreed on why Napoleon initially dispatched nearly 30,000 soldiers and sailors to the island. Evidence suggests the troops were actually an expeditionary force with intensions to invade North America through New Orleans and to establish a major holding in the Mississippi valley. However, lacking knowledge of basic prevention and control measures, mortality from the disease left only a small and shattered fraction of his troops alive, thwarting his secret ambition to colonize and hold French-held lands, which later became better known as the Louisiana Purchase. If an event of the magnitude of France's experience were to occur in the 21st century, it might also have profound unanticipated consequences.  
  Call Number Serial 1194  
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Author (up) Mitsch, W.J.; Day Jr., J.W. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Restoration of wetlands in the Mississippi-Ohio-Missouri (MOM) River Basin: Experience and needed research Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Ecological Engineering Abbreviated Journal Ecological Engineering  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 55-69  
  Keywords Gulf of Mexico; Hypoxia; Olentangy River Wetland Research Park; Ohio State University; Louisiana State University; River restoration; Wetland restoration; Nitrate-nitrogen  
  Abstract An ecological and hydrologic restoration of the Mississippi–Ohio–Missouri (MOM) Basin in the United States is proposed as the solution to the reccurring hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. Nitrate–nitrogen is the cause of this eutrophication in the Gulf and its source is mainly due to increased fertilizer use in the American Midwest. In that same Midwest, the land has also been artificially drained and 80–90% of the original wetlands have been lost. Our proposed restoration involves the strategic creation and restoration of 2.2 million ha of wetlands in the MOM basin where in-field wetlands intercept agricultural runoff and diversion wetlands are overflowed by flooding river water. Case studies that total 50 wetland-years of data from Illinois, Ohio, and Louisiana are summarized as the basis for the restoration area estimate. Benefits of this restoration, in addition to solving the Gulf hypoxia, include water quality improvement, reduction of public health threats, habitat creation, and flood mitigation that will accrue to the locations in the MOM basin where the restoration occurs. Before the restoration commences, there is a need for formal and rigorous large-scale research in the basin to reduce uncertainties.  
  Call Number Serial 719  
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Author (up) Pahl, J.W.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Henry, C.B.J.; Hess, T.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Recovery trajectories after in situ burning of an oiled wetland in coastal Louisiana, USA Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage  
  Volume 31 Issue 2 Pages 236-251  
  Keywords *Ecosystem; Environmental Pollutants/*adverse effects; *Fires; Hydrocarbons/*adverse effects; Louisiana; *Petroleum; Poaceae/*growth & development; Population Dynamics; Silicon Dioxide  
  Abstract The high degree of physical disturbance associated with conventional response options to oil spills in wetlands is driving the investigation of alternative cleanup methodologies. In March 1995, a spill of gas condensate in a brackish marsh at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge in southwestern Louisiana was remediated through the use of in situ burning. An assessment of vegetation recovery was initiated in three treatment marshes: (1) oil-impacted and burned, (2) oil impacted and unburned, and (3) a nonoiled unburned reference. We compared percent cover, stem density, and biomass in the treatment marshes to define ecological recovery of the marsh vegetation and soil hydrocarbon content to determine the efficacy of in situ burning as a cleanup technique. Burning led to a rapid decrease in soil hydrocarbon concentrations in the impacted-and-burned marsh to background levels by the end of the first growing season. Although a management fire accidentally burned the oil-impacted-and-unburned and reference marshes in December 1995, stem density, live biomass, and total percent cover values in the oil-impacted-and-burned marsh were equivalent to those in the other treatment marshes after three years. In addition, plant community composition within the oil-impacted-and-burned marsh was similar to the codominant mix of the grasses Distichlis spicata (salt grass) and Spartina patens (wire grass) characteristic of the surrounding marsh after the same time period. Rapid recovery of the oil-impacted-and-unburned marsh was likely due to lower initial hydrocarbon exposure. Water levels inundating the soil surface of this grass-dominated marsh and the timing of the in situ burn early in the growing season were important factors contributing to the rapid recovery of this wetland. The results of this in situ burn evaluation support the conclusion that burning, under the proper conditions, can be relied upon as an effective cleanup response to hydrocarbon spills in herbaceous wetlands.  
  Call Number Serial 132  
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