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Author (up) Britton, J.C.; Rauch, S.L.; Rosso, I.M.; Killgore, W.D.S.; Price, L.M.; Ragan, J.; Chosak, A.; Hezel, D.M.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E.; Pauls, D.L.; Jenike, M.A.; Stewart, S.E. file  url
  Title Cognitive inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 944-953  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention/physiology; Brain Mapping; Caudate Nucleus/physiopathology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Color Perception/*physiology; Corpus Striatum/physiopathology; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/*physiopathology/psychology; Orientation/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Reference Values; Reversal Learning/*physiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. METHOD: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets.  
  Call Number Serial 2043  
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Author (up) Cunnington, R.; Windischberger, C.; Robinson, S.; Moser, E. file  url
  Title The selection of intended actions and the observation of others' actions: a time-resolved fMRI study Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 1294-1302  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal--physiology; Attention--physiology; Brain Mapping; Contingent Negative Variation--physiology; Female; Gestures; Gyrus Cinguli--physiology; Humans; Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted; Imagination--physiology; Imitative Behavior--physiology; Intention; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Motor Cortex--physiology; Nerve Net--physiology; Parietal Lobe--physiology; Prefrontal Cortex--physiology; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Set (Psychology); Visual Cortex--physiology; Visual Pathways--physiology  
  Abstract Whenever we plan, imagine, or observe an action, the motor systems that would be involved in preparing and executing that action are similarly engaged. The way in which such common motor activation is formed, however, is likely to differ depending on whether it arises from our own intentional selection of action or from the observation of another's action. In this study, we use time-resolved event-related functional MRI to tease apart neural processes specifically related to the processing of observed actions, the selection of our own intended actions, the preparation for movement, and motor response execution. Participants observed a finger gesture movement or a cue indicating they should select their own finger gesture to perform, followed by a 5-s delay period; participants then performed the observed or self-selected action. During the preparation and readiness for action, prior to initiation, we found activation in a common network of higher motor areas, including dorsal and ventral premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA); the more caudal SMA showed greater activation during movement execution. Importantly, the route to this common motor activation differed depending on whether participants freely selected the actions to perform or whether they observed the actions performed by another person. Observation of action specifically involved activation of inferior and superior parietal regions, reflecting involvement of the dorsal visual pathway in visuomotor processing required for planning the action. In contrast, the selection of action specifically involved the dorsal lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting the role of these prefrontal areas in attentional selection and guiding the selection of responses.  
  Call Number Serial 69  
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Author (up) Dawson, G.; Webb, S.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Dager, S.; Friedman, S.; Aylward, E.; Richards, T. file  url
  Title Defining the broader phenotype of autism: genetic, brain, and behavioral perspectives Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Development and Psychopathology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychopathol  
  Volume 14 Issue 3 Pages 581-611  
  Keywords Autistic Disorder/*complications/*genetics; Brain/*abnormalities; Child; Child Behavior Disorders/*etiology; Evoked Potentials/physiology; Humans; Language Disorders/etiology; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Perceptual Disorders/etiology; Phenotype; Phonetics; Speech Perception; Temporal Lobe/abnormalities; Twin Studies as Topic  
  Abstract Achieving progress in understanding the cause, nature, and treatment of autism requires an integration of concepts, approaches, and empirical findings from genetic, cognitive neuroscience, animal, and clinical studies. The need for such integration has been a fundamental tenet of the discipline of developmental psychopathology from its inception. It is likely that the discovery of autism susceptibility genes will depend on the development of dimensional measures of broader phenotype autism traits. It is argued that knowledge of the cognitive neuroscience of social and language behavior will provide a useful framework for defining such measures. In this article, the current state of knowledge of the cognitive neuroscience of social and language impairments in autism is reviewed. Following from this, six candidate broader phenotype autism traits are proposed: (a) face processing, including structural encoding of facial features and face movements, such as eye gaze; (b) social affiliation or sensitivity to social reward, pertaining to the social motivational impairments found in autism; (c) motor imitation ability, particularly imitation of body actions; (d) memory, specifically those aspects of memory mediated by the medial temporal lobe-prefrontal circuits; (e) executive function, especially planning and flexibility; and (f) Language ability, particularly those aspects of language that overlap with specific language impairment, namely, phonological processing.  
  Call Number Serial 1118  
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Author (up) de Borst, A.W.; Sack, A.T.; Jansma, B.M.; Esposito, F.; de Martino, F.; Valente, G.; Roebroeck, A.; di Salle, F.; Goebel, R.; Formisano, E. file  url
  Title Integration of “what” and “where” in frontal cortex during visual imagery of scenes Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 47-58  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Electroencephalography; Female; Frontal Lobe--physiology; Functional Neuroimaging; Humans; Imagination--physiology; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Young Adult  
  Abstract Imagination is a key function for many human activities, such as reminiscing, learning, or planning. Unravelling its neuro-biological basis is paramount to grasp the essence of our thoughts. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions subserving the visualisation of “what?” (e.g. faces or objects) and “where?” (e.g. spatial layout) content of mental images. However, the functional role of a common set of involved regions – the frontal regions – and their interplay with the “what” and “where” regions, has remained largely unspecified. This study combines functional MRI and electroencephalography to examine the full-brain network that underlies the visual imagery of complex scenes and to investigate the spectro-temporal properties of its nodes, especially of the frontal cortex. Our results indicate that frontal regions integrate the “what” and “where” content of our thoughts into one visually imagined scene. We link early synchronisation of anterior theta and beta oscillations to regional activation of right and central frontal cortices, reflecting retrieval and integration of information. These frontal regions orchestrate remote occipital-temporal regions (including calcarine sulcus and parahippocampal gyrus) that encode the detailed representations of the objects, and parietal “where” regions that encode the spatial layout into forming one coherent mental picture. Specifically the mesial superior frontal gyrus appears to have a principal integrative role, as its activity during the visualisation of the scene predicts subsequent performance on the imagery task.  
  Call Number Serial 386  
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Author (up) Frank, G.K.; Bailer, U.F.; Henry, S.E.; Drevets, W.; Meltzer, C.C.; Price, J.C.; Mathis, C.A.; Wagner, A.; Hoge, J.; Ziolko, S.; Barbarich-Marsteller, N.; Weissfeld, L.; Kaye, W.H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Increased dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography and [11c]raclopride Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 58 Issue 11 Pages 908-912  
  Keywords Adult; Algorithms; Anorexia/*metabolism/psychology/*radionuclide imaging; Dopamine Antagonists/*diagnostic use; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Neostriatum/radionuclide imaging; Nucleus Accumbens/radionuclide imaging; Positron-Emission Tomography; Raclopride/*diagnostic use; Receptors, Dopamine D2/*metabolism; Receptors, Dopamine D3/*metabolism; Reward  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence support the possibility that disturbances of dopamine (DA) function could contribute to alterations of weight, feeding, motor activity, and reward in anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: To assess possibly trait-related disturbances but avoid confounding effects of malnutrition, 10 women who were recovered from AN (REC AN) were compared with 12 healthy control women (CW). Positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride was used to assess DA D2/D3 receptor binding. RESULTS: The women who were recovered from AN had significantly higher [(11)C]raclopride binding potential in the antero-ventral striatum than CW. For REC AN, [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance in the dorsal caudate and dorsal putamen. CONCLUSIONS: These data lend support for the possibility that decreased intrasynaptic DA concentration or increased D2/D3 receptor density or affinity is associated with AN and might contribute to the characteristic harm avoidance or increased physical activity found in AN. Most intriguing is the possibility that individuals with AN might have a DA related disturbance of reward mechanisms contributing to altered hedonics of feeding behavior and their ascetic, anhedonic temperament.  
  Call Number Serial 90  
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Author (up) Frokjaer, V.G.; Mortensen, E.L.; Nielsen, F.A.; Haugbol, S.; Pinborg, L.H.; Adams, K.H.; Svarer, C.; Hasselbalch, S.G.; Holm, S.; Paulson, O.B.; Knudsen, G.M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 6 Pages 569-576  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Biological Markers; *Character; Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Fluorine Radioisotopes/*diagnostic use; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Gyrus Cinguli/physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Humans; *Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Ketanserin/*analogs & derivatives/diagnostic use; Limbic System/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Middle Aged; Neurotic Disorders/diagnosis/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Personality Inventory; *Positron-Emission Tomography; Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A/*physiology; Reference Values; Risk Factors; Statistics as Topic; Temporal Lobe/physiopathology/radionuclide imaging  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Serotonergic dysfunction has been associated with affective disorders. High trait neuroticism, as measured on personality inventories, is a risk factor for major depression. In this study we investigated whether neuroticism is associated with serotonin 2A receptor binding in brain regions of relevance for affective disorders. METHODS: Eighty-three healthy volunteers completed the standardized personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and underwent [(18)F]altanserin positron emission tomography imaging for assessment of serotonin 2A receptor binding. The correlation between the neuroticism score and frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender. RESULTS: Neuroticism correlated positively with frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding [r(79) = .24, p = .028]. Post hoc analysis of the contributions from the six constituent traits of neuroticism showed that the correlation was primarily driven by two of them: vulnerability and anxiety. Indeed, vulnerability, defined as a person's difficulties in coping with stress, displayed the strongest positive correlation, which remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (r = .35, p = .009). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects the personality dimension neuroticism and particularly its constituent trait, vulnerability, are positively associated with frontolimbic serotonin 2A binding. Our findings point to a neurobiological link between personality risk factors for affective disorder and the serotonergic transmitter system and identify the serotonin 2A receptor as a biomarker for vulnerability to affective disorder.  
  Call Number Serial 1114  
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Author (up) Gauthier, I.; Tarr, M.J.; Anderson, A.W.; Skudlarski, P.; Gore, J.C. file  url
  Title Activation of the middle fusiform 'face area' increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Nature Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Neurosci  
  Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 568-573  
  Keywords Adult; *Face; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Recruitment, Neurophysiological/physiology; Temporal Lobe/*physiology  
  Abstract Part of the ventral temporal lobe is thought to be critical for face perception, but what determines this specialization remains unknown. We present evidence that expertise recruits the fusiform gyrus 'face area'. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes associated with increasing expertise in brain areas selected for their face preference. Acquisition of expertise with novel objects (greebles) led to increased activation in the right hemisphere face areas for matching of upright greebles as compared to matching inverted greebles. The same areas were also more activated in experts than in novices during passive viewing of greebles. Expertise seems to be one factor that leads to specialization in the face area.  
  Call Number Serial 2052  
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Author (up) Gruber, O.; von Cramon, D.Y. file  url
  Title Domain-specific distribution of working memory processes along human prefrontal and parietal cortices: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Neuroscience Letters Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Lett  
  Volume 297 Issue 1 Pages 29-32  
  Keywords Adult; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; Male; Memory/*physiology; Parietal Lobe/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology; Vision, Ocular/physiology  
  Abstract This study reinvestigated the functional neuroanatomy of phonological and visual working memory in humans. Articulatory suppression was used to deprive the human subjects of species-specific verbal strategies in order to make the functional magnetic resonance imaging results more comparable to findings in non-human primates. Both phonological and visual working memory processes activated similar prefronto-parietal networks but were found to be differentially distributed along several cortical structures, in particular along the anterior and posterior parts of the intermediate frontal sulcus. These results suggest that a domain-specific topographical organization of neural working memory mechanisms in the primate brain is conserved in evolution. However, the findings also underline the critical dynamic influence that the additional availability of language may have on working memory processes and their functional implementation in the human brain.  
  Call Number Serial 142  
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Author (up) Haynes, J.-D.; Sakai, K.; Rees, G.; Gilbert, S.; Frith, C.; Passingham, R.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Reading hidden intentions in the human brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 323-328  
  Keywords *Brain Mapping; Humans; *Intention; Linear Models; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Memory/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract When humans are engaged in goal-related processing, activity in prefrontal cortex is increased. However, it has remained unclear whether this prefrontal activity encodes a subject's current intention. Instead, increased levels of activity could reflect preparation of motor responses, holding in mind a set of potential choices, tracking the memory of previous responses, or general processes related to establishing a new task set. Here we study subjects who freely decided which of two tasks to perform and covertly held onto an intention during a variable delay. Only after this delay did they perform the chosen task and indicate which task they had prepared. We demonstrate that during the delay, it is possible to decode from activity in medial and lateral regions of prefrontal cortex which of two tasks the subjects were covertly intending to perform. This suggests that covert goals can be represented by distributed patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex, thereby providing a potential neural substrate for prospective memory. During task execution, most information could be decoded from a more posterior region of prefrontal cortex, suggesting that different brain regions encode goals during task preparation and task execution. Decoding of intentions was most robust from the medial prefrontal cortex, which is consistent with a specific role of this region when subjects reflect on their own mental states.  
  Call Number Serial 539  
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Author (up) Heekeren, H.R.; Marrett, S.; Bandettini, P.A.; Ungerleider, L.G. file  url
  Title A general mechanism for perceptual decision-making in the human brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 431 Issue 7010 Pages 859-862  
  Keywords Animals; Attention/physiology; Brain/cytology/*physiology; Decision Making/*physiology; Face; Female; Haplorhini/physiology; Housing; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; *Models, Neurological; Pattern Recognition, Visual/physiology; Photic Stimulation; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/physiology; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract Findings from single-cell recording studies suggest that a comparison of the outputs of different pools of selectively tuned lower-level sensory neurons may be a general mechanism by which higher-level brain regions compute perceptual decisions. For example, when monkeys must decide whether a noisy field of dots is moving upward or downward, a decision can be formed by computing the difference in responses between lower-level neurons sensitive to upward motion and those sensitive to downward motion. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging and a categorization task in which subjects decide whether an image presented is a face or a house to test whether a similar mechanism is also at work for more complex decisions in the human brain and, if so, where in the brain this computation might be performed. Activity within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is greater during easy decisions than during difficult decisions, covaries with the difference signal between face- and house-selective regions in the ventral temporal cortex, and predicts behavioural performance in the categorization task. These findings show that even for complex object categories, the comparison of the outputs of different pools of selectively tuned neurons could be a general mechanism by which the human brain computes perceptual decisions.  
  Call Number Serial 1353  
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