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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Addis, P.R.; Lawson, S.E.M. file  url
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  Title The role of tendon stiffness in development of equine locomotion with age Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 38 Pages 556-560  
  Keywords Aging--physiology; Animals; Biomechanical Phenomena; Female; Horses--physiology; Locomotion--physiology; Male; Tendons--physiology  
  Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The flexor tendons support the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints during stance phase and since tendon stiffness and strain changes with age, it is likely that kinematics are also age-dependent. HYPOTHESIS: Maximum MCP and DIP angles decrease in the young horse, plateau in the mature horse and increase towards senescence. METHODS: The distal limbs of 57 walking horses age 3-212 months were filmed and digitised with an automated tracking system. Maximum MCP and DIP angles during stance phase were used to calculate strain in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons. Horses were divided into 3 age groups; young (3-35 months), mature (36-99 months) and older horses (100-212 months). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship between age and kinematics. RESULTS: Tendon strain decreased in young horses, stayed constant in mature horses and increased in older horses. Joint angles showed significant negative correlation in young horses, with coefficients of -0.88 (MCP) and -0.81 (DIP). In mature horses, correlations were not significant (P = 0.2 for MCP; P = 0.5 for DIP). In older horses, angles showed significant positive correlation, with coefficients of 0.62 (MCP) and 0.48 (DIP). CONCLUSIONS: Joint angles decreased in the young horse as tendon stiffness increases, remained constant in the mature horse where tendon stiffness is constant and increased in older horses as tendons weakens and stiffness decreases. Strain patterns were similar to those found in vitro. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Changing tendon stiffness appeared to influence the development and degeneration of gait. This has implications for studying musculoskeletal development, especially for identification of normal and pathological development.  
  Call Number Serial 108  
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Author (up) Alapin, I.; Fichten, C.S.; Libman, E.; Creti, L.; Bailes, S.; Wright, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title How is good and poor sleep in older adults and college students related to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ability to concentrate? Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 381-390  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Attention; Circadian Rhythm--physiology; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis, etiology; Disorders of Excessive Somnolence--diagnosis, etiology; Fatigue--diagnosis, etiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep--physiology; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders--complications, diagnosis; Students; Universities; Wakefulness--physiology  
  Abstract We compared good sleepers with minimally and highly distressed poor sleepers on three measures of daytime functioning: self-reported fatigue, sleepiness, and cognitive inefficiency. In two samples (194 older adults, 136 college students), we tested the hypotheses that (1) poor sleepers experience more problems with daytime functioning than good sleepers, (2) highly distressed poor sleepers report greater impairment in functioning during the day than either good sleepers or minimally distressed poor sleepers, (3) daytime symptoms are more closely related to psychological adjustment and to psychologically laden sleep variables than to quantitative sleep parameters, and (4) daytime symptoms are more closely related to longer nocturnal wake times than to shorter sleep times. Results in both samples indicated that poor sleepers reported more daytime difficulties than good sleepers. While low- and high-distress poor sleepers did not differ on sleep parameters, highly distressed poor sleepers reported consistently more difficulty in functioning during the day and experienced greater tension and depression than minimally distressed poor sleepers. Severity of all three daytime problems was generally significantly and positively related to poor psychological adjustment, psychologically laden sleep variables, and, with the exception of sleepiness, to quantitative sleep parameters. Results are used to discuss discrepancies between experiential and quantitative measures of daytime functioning.  
  Call Number Serial 216  
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Author (up) Amato, P.R. file  url
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  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author (up) Amato, P.R.; Keith, B. file  url
openurl 
  Title Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages 26-46  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development  
  Abstract This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 277  
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