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Author (up) Cahill, L. file  url
  Title The neurobiology of emotionally influenced memory. Implications for understanding traumatic memory Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 821 Issue Pages 238-246  
  Keywords Brain/*physiopathology; Catecholamines/physiology; Emotions/*physiology; Humans; Memory/*physiology; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*physiopathology/*psychology; Wounds and Injuries/physiopathology/*psychology  
  Abstract Substantial evidence from animal and human subject studies converges on the view that memory for emotionally arousing events is modulated by an endogenous memory-modulating system consisting, at minimum, of stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex. Within the normal range of emotions experienced, this system is viewed as an evolutionarily adaptive method of creating memory strength that is, in general, proportional to memory importance. In conditions of extreme emotional stress, the operation of this normally adaptive system may underly the formation of strong, “intrusive” memories characteristic of PTSD. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of memory modulation should lead to an improved ability to treat or prevent traumatic memories.  
  Call Number Serial 382  
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Author (up) D'Hooge, R.; De Deyn, P.P. file  url
  Title Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Brain Res Rev  
  Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 60-90  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Brain/cytology/*physiology; Denervation/adverse effects; Disease Models, Animal; Maze Learning/*physiology; Memory/*physiology; Mice; Nerve Net/cytology/*physiology; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism; Rats; Rodentia/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Space Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract The Morris water maze (MWM) was described 20 years ago as a device to investigate spatial learning and memory in laboratory rats. In the meanwhile, it has become one of the most frequently used laboratory tools in behavioral neuroscience. Many methodological variations of the MWM task have been and are being used by research groups in many different applications. However, researchers have become increasingly aware that MWM performance is influenced by factors such as apparatus or training procedure as well as by the characteristics of the experimental animals (sex, species/strain, age, nutritional state, exposure to stress or infection). Lesions in distinct brain regions like hippocampus, striatum, basal forebrain, cerebellum and cerebral cortex were shown to impair MWM performance, but disconnecting rather than destroying brain regions relevant for spatial learning may impair MWM performance as well. Spatial learning in general and MWM performance in particular appear to depend upon the coordinated action of different brain regions and neurotransmitter systems constituting a functionally integrated neural network. Finally, the MWM task has often been used in the validation of rodent models for neurocognitive disorders and the evaluation of possible neurocognitive treatments. Through its many applications, MWM testing gained a position at the very core of contemporary neuroscience research.  
  Call Number Serial 1556  
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Author (up) Gruber, O.; von Cramon, D.Y. file  url
  Title Domain-specific distribution of working memory processes along human prefrontal and parietal cortices: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Neuroscience Letters Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Lett  
  Volume 297 Issue 1 Pages 29-32  
  Keywords Adult; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; Male; Memory/*physiology; Parietal Lobe/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology; Vision, Ocular/physiology  
  Abstract This study reinvestigated the functional neuroanatomy of phonological and visual working memory in humans. Articulatory suppression was used to deprive the human subjects of species-specific verbal strategies in order to make the functional magnetic resonance imaging results more comparable to findings in non-human primates. Both phonological and visual working memory processes activated similar prefronto-parietal networks but were found to be differentially distributed along several cortical structures, in particular along the anterior and posterior parts of the intermediate frontal sulcus. These results suggest that a domain-specific topographical organization of neural working memory mechanisms in the primate brain is conserved in evolution. However, the findings also underline the critical dynamic influence that the additional availability of language may have on working memory processes and their functional implementation in the human brain.  
  Call Number Serial 142  
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Author (up) Haynes, J.-D.; Sakai, K.; Rees, G.; Gilbert, S.; Frith, C.; Passingham, R.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Reading hidden intentions in the human brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 323-328  
  Keywords *Brain Mapping; Humans; *Intention; Linear Models; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Memory/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract When humans are engaged in goal-related processing, activity in prefrontal cortex is increased. However, it has remained unclear whether this prefrontal activity encodes a subject's current intention. Instead, increased levels of activity could reflect preparation of motor responses, holding in mind a set of potential choices, tracking the memory of previous responses, or general processes related to establishing a new task set. Here we study subjects who freely decided which of two tasks to perform and covertly held onto an intention during a variable delay. Only after this delay did they perform the chosen task and indicate which task they had prepared. We demonstrate that during the delay, it is possible to decode from activity in medial and lateral regions of prefrontal cortex which of two tasks the subjects were covertly intending to perform. This suggests that covert goals can be represented by distributed patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex, thereby providing a potential neural substrate for prospective memory. During task execution, most information could be decoded from a more posterior region of prefrontal cortex, suggesting that different brain regions encode goals during task preparation and task execution. Decoding of intentions was most robust from the medial prefrontal cortex, which is consistent with a specific role of this region when subjects reflect on their own mental states.  
  Call Number Serial 539  
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Author (up) Jonasson, Z. file  url
  Title Meta-analysis of sex differences in rodent models of learning and memory: a review of behavioral and biological data Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Biobehav Rev  
  Volume 28 Issue 8 Pages 811-825  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Learning/physiology; Maze Learning; Memory/*physiology; Models, Animal; Rodentia; *Sex Characteristics  
  Abstract The existence of sex differences in the standard rat and mouse models of learning and memory is a controversial and contested topic in the literature. The present meta-analysis of radial maze and water maze experiments was conducted to assess the reliablility and magnitude of sex effects in the standard rodent models of learning and memory. Data were culled from published and unpublished sources. Findings indicate large reliable male advantages for rats in radial maze and water maze protocols. Significant strain differences were also identified. In each paradigm, protocol variations were associated with differential sex effects. For the water maze, smaller male advantages were associated with pretraining regimens and for the radial maze, larger significant male advantages were observed in protocols that included unbaited arms (combined reference and working memory protocols). Mouse studies exhibited a different pattern of sex effects; small female advantages were evident in the water maze, but small male advantages were evident in the radial maze. Together these findings establish the reliability of male advantages in spatial working and reference memory for rats across strains, protocols, ages and rearing environments. The findings also support an important species dichotomy between rats and mice that should be considered when transitioning from rat to mouse models. In light of these results, the biological evidence supporting theoretical explanations of sex differences is reviewed and evaluated.  
  Call Number Serial 1557  
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Author (up) Miranda, R.A.; Ullman, M.T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 38 Issue 2 Pages 331-345  
  Keywords Brain/*physiology; Culture; *Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Female; Humans; Language; *Learning; Male; Memory/*physiology; *Music; United States  
  Abstract Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.  
  Call Number Serial 477  
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Author (up) Sampedro-Piquero, P.; Zancada-Menendez, C.; Begega, A.; Rubio, S.; Arias, J.L. file  url
  Title Effects of environmental enrichment on anxiety responses, spatial memory and cytochrome c oxidase activity in adult rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Brain Research Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Bull  
  Volume 98 Issue Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; *Anxiety/enzymology/pathology/physiopathology; Disease Models, Animal; Electron Transport Complex IV/*metabolism; *Environment; Male; Maze Learning/physiology; Memory/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Space Perception/*physiology; Statistics as Topic; Time Factors; 4-Rawm; ANOVA of repeated measures; Acb; Bnst; BlA; Co; COx; CeA; Cg; Cytochrome c oxidase activity; Ee; Ee+Spl; Epm; Ezm; Elevated zero-maze; Environmental enrichment; Gc; Hpa; Il; Ltp; Manova; Mo; Od; Pl; PVNh; PVNt; Rm Anova; Radial-arm water maze; Spl; TbE; Wistar rat; accumbens nucleus; basolateral amygdala; bed nucleus stria terminalis; central amygdala; cingulate cortex; control group; cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry; dCA1 dCA3; dDG; dorsal dentate gyrus; dorsal hippocampal cornu ammonis; elevated plus-maze; elevated zero-maze; environmental enrichment; environmental enrichment group; environmental enrichment+spatial learning group; four-arm radial water maze; glucocorticoids; hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; infralimbic cortex; long-term potentiation; medial orbital cortex; multivariate analysis of variance; optical density; paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; paraventricular thalamic nucleus; prelimbic cortex; spatial learning group; time by entries; vCA1 vCA3; vDG; ventral dentate gyrus; ventral hippocampal cornu ammonis  
  Abstract We have studied the effect of an environmental enrichment (EE) protocol in adult Wistar rats on the activity in the elevated zero-maze (EZM), performance in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) and we have also examined the changes in the neuronal metabolic activity of several brain regions related to anxiety response and spatial memory through cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry (COx). Our EE protocol had anxiolytic effect in the EZM; the animals spent more time and made more entries into the open quadrants, they had lower latency to enter into the open quadrant and lower levels of defecation. Also, the EE group showed fewer working memory and reference memory errors, as well as lesser distance travelled in the first day of the spatial training. In relation to the neuronal metabolic activity, EE reduced the COx activity in brain regions related to anxiety response, such as the infralimbic cortex, the paraventricular thalamic and hypothalamic nucleus, the basolateral amygdala, and the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between groups in the dorsal hippocampus, more related to spatial cognition. These results suggest a beneficial effect of EE on spatial memory as a result of reducing anxiety levels and the COx activity in brain regions involved in anxiety response. We also found a differential pattern of activation inside the hippocampus, suggesting that the dorsal hippocampus has a preferential involvement in spatial learning and memory, whereas the ventral hippocampus has a role in anxiety response.  
  Call Number Serial 1042  
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Author (up) Stancampiano, R.; Cocco, S.; Cugusi, C.; Sarais, L.; Fadda, F. file  url
  Title Serotonin and acetylcholine release response in the rat hippocampus during a spatial memory task Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 89 Issue 4 Pages 1135-1143  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/*metabolism; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Hippocampus/*physiology; Male; Maze Learning/*physiology; Memory/*physiology; Microdialysis; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Reinforcement (Psychology); Reward; Serotonin/*metabolism; Space Perception; Time Factors  
  Abstract By using in vivo microdialysis we monitored the extracellular levels of acetylcholine and serotonin in the hippocampus of rats performing a spatial memory task. After rats were trained for 10 consecutive days to master a food-reinforced radial-arm maze task, they were implanted with a microdialysis probe in the dorsal hippocampus. On day 12, rats were tested in the maze and acetylcholine and serotonin outputs were monitored before the test, during the waiting phase and while performing the trials. In trained, food-rewarded rats, hippocampal acetylcholine levels increased during the waiting period (181 +/- 90 of baseline) and further increased during the radial-maze performance to 236 +/- 13% of baseline values, while serotonin levels did not change during the waiting period but increased to 142 +/- 3% during the maze performance. To discriminate whether the increase of acetylcholine and serotonin levels during the testing was associated with memory performance or with food consumption, we monitored hippocampal acetylcholine and serotonin release in rats that were trained, but not food rewarded, or in rats that were not trained, but rewarded only on the test day. In the trained, non-rewarded group, acetylcholine release increased during the waiting phase to 168 +/- 6%, but did not increase further during the task performance. In contrast, no change in serotonin release was observed in this group in any phase of the test. In rats which were not trained, but food rewarded, acetylcholine increased only during the maze period (150 +/- 5%). Serotonin increased gradually and become significant at the end of the trials. (130 +/- 3%). While both neurotransmitters could be implicated in feeding behaviour, only activation of cholinergic neurotransmission appears to be associated with memory function. Our results support the following hypotheses: (i) hippocampal acetylcholine could be involved in attentional and cognitive functions underlying motivational processes; (ii) serotonin could be implicated in non-cognitive processes (i.e. in the control of motor and feeding behaviour). Since serotonin and acetylcholine neurotransmission is simultaneously activated during the spatial memory task, this suggests that these neurotransmitter systems regulate behavioural and cognitive functions.  
  Call Number Serial 1501  
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