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Author (up) Amato, P.R. file  url
  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author (up) Beiter, R.; Nash, R.; McCrady, M.; Rhoades, D.; Linscomb, M.; Clarahan, M.; Sammut, S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Affective Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Affect Disord  
  Volume 173 Issue Pages 90-96  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety/*epidemiology; Depression/*epidemiology; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; Ohio/epidemiology; Prevalence; Stress, Psychological/*epidemiology; Students/*psychology; *Universities; Young Adult; Anxiety; College students; Dass; Depression; Mental health; Stress  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past four years, the Franciscan University Counseling Center has reported a 231% increase in yearly visits, as well as a 173% increase in total yearly clients. This trend has been observed at many universities as mental health issues pose significant problems for many college students. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. METHODS: The final analyzed sample consisted of 374 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 24 attending Franciscan University, Steubenville, Ohio. Subjects completed a survey consisting of demographic questions, a section instructing participants to rate the level of concern associated with challenges pertinent to daily life (e.g. academics, family, sleep), and the 21 question version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS21). RESULTS: The results indicated that the top three concerns were academic performance, pressure to succeed, and post-graduation plans. Demographically, the most stressed, anxious, and depressed students were transfers, upperclassmen, and those living off-campus. CONCLUSIONS: With the propensity for mental health issues to hinder the success of college students, it is vital that colleges continually evaluate the mental health of their students and tailor treatment programs to specifically target their needs.  
  Call Number Serial 1158  
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Author (up) Bingham, R.; Banner, N. file  url
  Title The definition of mental disorder: evolving but dysfunctional? Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Medical Ethics Abbreviated Journal J Med Ethics  
  Volume 40 Issue 8 Pages 537-542  
  Keywords Concept Formation/*ethics; *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; *Homosexuality; Humans; Mental Disorders/*classification/*diagnosis/psychology; Prejudice; *Psychiatry; Concept of Mental Health; Psychiatry  
  Abstract Extensive and diverse conceptual work towards developing a definition of 'mental disorder' was motivated by the declassification of homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973. This highly politicised event was understood as a call for psychiatry to provide assurances against further misclassification on the basis of discrimination or socio-political deviance. Today, if a definition of mental disorder fails to exclude homosexuality, then it fails to provide this safeguard against potential abuses and therefore fails to do an important part of the work it was intended to do. We argue that fact-based definitions of mental disorder, relying on scientific theory, fail to offer a robust definition of mental disorder that excludes homosexuality. Definitions of mental disorder based on values do not fare better: these definitions are silent on questions about the diagnostic status of individuals in oppressive societies and over-inclusive of mental or behavioural states that happen to be negatively valued in the individual's social context. We consider the latest definition proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) in light of these observations. We argue that definition fails to improve on these earlier deficiencies. Its inclusion in the manual may offer false reassurance against repetition of past misclassifications. We conclude with a provocation that if candidate definitions of mental disorder are unable to exclude homosexuality, it might perhaps be preferable not to attempt a definition at all.  
  Call Number Serial 1383  
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Author (up) Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K. file  url
  Title Mindful Parenting in Mental Health Care Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Mindfulness Abbreviated Journal Mindfulness (N Y)  
  Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 107-120  
  Keywords Mindfulness; Meditation; Mental health; Parenting; Children; Attention  
  Abstract Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting (“mindful parenting”) is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting interventions are increasingly being used to help prevent and treat mental disorders in children, parenting problems, and prevent intergenerational transmission of mental disorders from parents to children. However, to date, few studies have examined the hypothesized mechanisms of change brought about by mindful parenting. We discuss six possible mechanisms through which mindful parenting may bring about change in parent-child interactions in the context of child and parent mental health problems. These mechanisms are hypothesized to be mediated by the effects of mindfulness on parental attention by: (1) reducing parental stress and resulting parental reactivity; (2) reducing parental preoccupation resulting from parental and/or child psychopathology; (3) improving parental executive functioning in impulsive parents; (4) breaking the cycle of intergenerational transmission of dysfunctional parenting schemas and habits; (5) increasing self-nourishing attention; and (6) improving marital functioning and co-parenting. We review research that has applied mindful parenting in mental health settings, with a focus on evidence for these six mechanisms. Finally, we discuss directions for future research into mindful parenting and the crucial questions that this research should strive to answer.  
  Call Number Serial 947  
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Author (up) Burke, T.A.; Litt, J.S.; Fox, M.A. file  url
  Title Linking public health and the health of the Chesapeake Bay Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 82 Issue 2 Pages 143-149  
  Keywords *Environmental Health; Humans; Maryland; *Public Health; *Risk Management; Seawater; Water Pollution/*prevention & control  
  Abstract The Chesapeake Bay has a profound impact on the lives of all who reside in the 64,000 square miles of its watershed. From crab cakes to sail-boats, drinking water to naval ships, the Bay touches virtually every aspect of life in the region. The Bay has inspired literature, driven the regional economy, and shaped political decision making and development patterns for homes, industry, agriculture, and transportation. As population demands increase and urban boundaries expand into pristine landscapes, the sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay and its resources face unprecedented pressures. Consequently, the public's health also is vulnerable to Bay pollution and other stresses stemming from development activities and widespread growth occurring throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This paper will examine the linkages between the environmental quality of the Bay and the population health status, recommend ways to bridge ecological and human health concerns in the context of the Bay, and finally present a framework for developing a public health report card for the Bay.  
  Call Number Serial 923  
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Author (up) Caspers, K.M.; Yucuis, R.; Troutman, B.; Spinks, R. file  url
  Title Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy Abbreviated Journal Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 32  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adoption/*psychology; Adult; Aged; Behavior; Community Mental Health Services/*utilization; Female; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Logistic Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; *Object Attachment; Patient Acceptance of Health Care/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Patient Participation/*statistics & numerical data; Psychometrics; Stress, Psychological; Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology/*psychology/*therapy; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. METHODS: Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208). The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. RESULTS: Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.  
  Call Number Serial 1721  
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Author (up) Facchin, F.; Barbara, G.; Saita, E.; Mosconi, P.; Roberto, A.; Fedele, L.; Vercellini, P. file  url
  Title Impact of endometriosis on quality of life and mental health: pelvic pain makes the difference Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 135-141  
  Keywords Adult; *Anxiety/etiology/physiopathology; Constipation/etiology/physiopathology; Data Interpretation, Statistical; *Depression/etiology/physiopathology; *Dysmenorrhea/etiology/psychology; Dyspareunia/etiology/psychology; *Endometriosis/complications/diagnosis/physiopathology/psychology; Female; Humans; Italy; Mental Health/statistics & numerical data; Pain Measurement/methods; *Pelvic Pain/etiology/psychology; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychometrics/methods; *Quality of Life; Anxiety; depression; endometriosis; pelvic pain; quality of life  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: No prior study of endometriosis has investigated the psychological impact of having asymptomatic endometriosis versus endometriosis with pelvic pain in a systematic way. This study aimed at examining the impact of endometriosis on quality of life, anxiety and depression by comparing asymptomatic endometriosis, endometriosis with pelvic pain, and healthy, pain-free controls. The psychological impact of different types of endometriosis pain was also tested. METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (78 with pelvic pain and 32 without pain symptoms) and 61 healthy controls completed two psychometric tests assessing quality of life, anxiety and depression. Endometriosis participants indicated on a numerical rating scale the intensity of four types of pain (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, non-menstrual pelvic pain and dyschezia). RESULTS: Endometriosis patients with pelvic pain had poorer quality of life and mental health as compared with those with asymptomatic endometriosis and the healthy controls. No significant differences were found between asymptomatic endometriosis and the control group. Dysmenorrhea had significant effects only on physical quality of life; non-menstrual pelvic pain affected all the variables; no significant effects were found for dyspareunia and dyschezia. CONCLUSIONS: Pain significantly affects women's experience of endometriosis. The medical treatment of endometriosis with pain may not be sufficient and psychological intervention is recommended.  
  Call Number Serial 2124  
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Author (up) Ferguson, C.J.; Barr, H.; Figueroa, G.; Foley, K.; Gallimore, A.; LaQuea, R.; Merritt, A.; Miller, S.; Nguyen-Pham, H.; Spanogle, C.; Stevens, J.; Trigani, B.; Garza, A. file  url
  Title Digital poison? Three studies examining the influence of violent video games on youth Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Computers in Human Behavior Abbreviated Journal Computers in Human Behavior  
  Volume 50 Issue Pages 399-410  
  Keywords Video Games; Aggression; Violence; Mental health  
  Abstract The role of violent video games in the development of aggression and mental health issues in youth continues to be controversial in the scholarly community and general public. Compared to college students, few studies have directly examined the potential impact of violent video games on youth and current evidence is mixed. The current article attempts to address this with three studies examining violent game play in youth aged 12–18. In Study 1, youth were randomized to play closely matched action games with either violent or non-violent content. Youth were given the opportunity to act aggressively using an ice water task. Study 2 was a conceptual replication of Study 1, with slower narrative games rather than action games. Study 3 examined the issue in a correlational study of youth, contrasting exposure to violent video games in youth’s personal lives to their exposure to violence in controversial books while controlling for other variables including family, peer and personality variables. None of the studies provided evidence for concerns linking video game violence to aggressive behaviors or reduced empathy in youth.  
  Call Number Serial 1951  
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Author (up) Givens, C.E.; Kolpin, D.W.; Borchardt, M.A.; Duris, J.W.; Moorman, T.B.; Spencer, S.K. file  url
  Title Detection of hepatitis E virus and other livestock-related pathogens in Iowa streams Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 566-567 Issue Pages 1042-1051  
  Keywords Animal agriculture; Environmental health; Hepatitis E virus; Indicator bacteria; Water quality; Zoonotic pathogens  
  Abstract Manure application is a source of pathogens to the environment. Through overland runoff and tile drainage, zoonotic pathogens can contaminate surface water and streambed sediment and could affect both wildlife and human health. This study examined the environmental occurrence of gene markers for livestock-related bacterial, protozoan, and viral pathogens and antibiotic resistance in surface waters within the South Fork Iowa River basin before and after periods of swine manure application on agricultural land. Increased concentrations of indicator bacteria after manure application exceeding Iowa's state bacteria water quality standards suggest that swine manure contributes to diminished water quality and may pose a risk to human health. Additionally, the occurrence of HEV and numerous bacterial pathogen genes for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus in both manure samples and in corresponding surface water following periods of manure application suggests a potential role for swine in the spreading of zoonotic pathogens to the surrounding environment. During this study, several zoonotic pathogens were detected including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, pathogenic enterococci, and S. aureus; all of which can pose mild to serious health risks to swine, humans, and other wildlife. This research provides the foundational understanding required for future assessment of the risk to environmental health from livestock-related zoonotic pathogen exposures in this region. This information could also be important for maintaining swine herd biosecurity and protecting the health of wildlife near swine facilities.  
  Call Number Serial 1909  
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Author (up) Golding, A.-L.; Dong, Z. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Hydrogen production by nitrogenase as a potential crop rotation benefit Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Environmental Chemistry Letters Abbreviated Journal Environ Chem Lett  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 101-121  
  Keywords Climate change; Global concern; Environmental health  
  Abstract Both climate change and the adverse effects of chemical use on human and environmental health are recognized as serious issues of global concern. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the agricultural sector where release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane continues to be problematic and where use of nitrogen fertilizer is responsible for negative impacts on both human populations and ecosystems. The manipulation of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) could help alleviate part of the difficulty by decreasing the need for nitrogen fertilizers, which require huge quantities of fossil fuel to produce and contribute to the release of nitrous oxide from soil as well as being responsible for the contamination of drinking water systems and natural habitats. BNF is performed by a variety of microorganisms. One of the most studied examples is the BNF carried out by rhizobial bacteria in symbiosis with their plant hosts such as pea and soybean. Hydrogen gas is an energy-rich, obligate by-product of BNF. Legume symbioses with rhizobia lacking hydrogenase enzymes (which can recycle hydrogen) have traditionally been viewed as energetically inefficient. However, recent studies suggest hydrogen release to soil may be beneficial, increasing soil carbon sequestration and promoting growth of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria beneficial to plant growth; the alleged superiority of symbiotic performance in rhizobia possessing functional hydrogenases (HUP+) over those rhizobia without functional hydrogenases (HUP−) has also not been conclusively shown. The structure of the iron-molybdenum cofactor or FeMo-co of nitrogenase (the active site of the enzyme) has been elucidated through X-ray crystallography but the mechanism of nitrogen fixation remains unknown. However, studies of effects of hydrogen production on BNF have revealed potential candidate intermediates involved in the nitrogenase reaction pathway and have also shown the role of hydrogen as a competitive inhibitor of N2, with hydrogen now considered to be the primary regulator of the nitrogenase electron allocation coefficient. The regulation of oxygen levels within legume root nodules is also being investigated; nitrogen fixation is energetically expensive, requiring a plentiful oxygen supply but too high an oxygen concentration can irreversibly damage nitrogenase, so some regulation is needed. There is evidence from gas diffusion studies suggesting the presence of a diffusion barrier in nodules; leghaemoglobin is another potential O2 regulator. Possible functions of hydrogenases include hydrogen recycling, protection of nitrogenase from damaging O2 levels and prevention of inhibitory H2 accumulation; there is evidence for H2 recycling only in studies where H2 uptake has been strongly coupled to ATP production and where this is not the case, it is believed that the hydrogenase acts as an O2 scavenger, lowering O2 concentrations. The distribution of hydrogenases in temperate legumes has been found to be narrow and root and shoot grafting experiments suggest the host plant may exert some influence on the expression of hydrogenase (HUP) genes in rhizobia that possess them. Many still believe that HUP+ rhizobia are superior in performance to HUP− species; to this end, many attempts to increase the relative efficiency of nitrogenase through the introduction of HUP genes into the plasmids or chromosomes of HUP− rhizobia have been carried out and some have met with success but many other studies have not revealed an increase in symbiotic performance after successful insertion of HUP genes so the role of HUP in increasing parameters such as N2 fixation and plant yield is still unclear. One advantage of the hydrogen production innate to BNF is that the H2 evolved can be used to measure N2 fixation using new open-flow gas chamber techniques seen as superior to the traditional acetylene reduction assay (ARA) conducted in closed chambers, although H2 cannot be used for field studies yet as the ARA can. However, the ARA is now believed to be unreliable in field studies and it is recommended that other measures such as dry weight, yield and total nitrogen content are more accurate, especially in determining real food production, particularly in the developing nations. Another potential benefit of H2 release from root nodules is that it stays in the soil and has been found to be consumed by H2-oxidizing bacteria, many of which show plant growth–promoting properties such as the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis in the host plant, leading to root elongation and increased plant growth; they may well be promising as biofertilizers if they can be successfully developed into seed inoculants for non-leguminous crop species, decreasing the need for chemical fertilizers. It has been suggested that rhizobia can produce nitrous oxide through denitrification but this has never been shown; it is possible that hydrogen release may provide more ideal conditions for denitrifying, free-living bacteria and so increase production of nitrous oxide that way and this issue will require more study. However, it seems unlikely that a natural system would release nitrous oxide to the same degree that chemical fertilizers have been shown to do.  
  Call Number Serial 625  
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