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Author (up) Bowler, D.M.; Gaigg, S.B.; Gardiner, J.M. file  url
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  Title Effects of related and unrelated context on recall and recognition by adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neuropsychologia Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychologia  
  Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 993-999  
  Keywords Adult; Association Learning--physiology; Autistic Disorder--physiopathology, psychology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Male; Mental Recall--physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Recognition (Psychology)--physiology  
  Abstract Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD (HFA) and matched typical comparison participants. In both experiments, participants studied words presented inside a red rectangle and were told to ignore context words presented outside the rectangle. Context words were either related or unrelated to the study words. The results showed that relatedness of context enhanced recall for the typical group only. However, recognition was enhanced by relatedness in both groups of participants. On a behavioural level, these findings confirm the Task Support Hypothesis [Bowler, D. M., Gardiner, J. M., & Berthollier, N. (2004). Source memory in Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 533-542], which states that individuals with ASD will show greater difficulty on memory tests that provide little support for retrieval. The findings extend this hypothesis by showing that it operates at the level of relatedness between studied items and incidentally encoded context. By showing difficulties in memory for associated items, the findings are also consistent with conjectures that implicate medial temporal lobe and frontal lobe dysfunction in the memory difficulties of individuals with ASD.  
  Call Number Serial 57  
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Author (up) Poirier, M.; Martin, J.S.; Gaigg, S.B.; Bowler, D.M. file  url
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  Title Short-term memory in autism spectrum disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Abnormal Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Psychol  
  Volume 120 Issue 1 Pages 247-252  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Autistic Disorder--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Memory, Short-Term--physiology; Mental Recall--physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Serial Learning--physiology  
  Abstract Three experiments examined verbal short-term memory in comparison and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Experiment 1 involved forward and backward digit recall. Experiment 2 used a standard immediate serial recall task where, contrary to the digit-span task, items (words) were not repeated from list to list. Hence, this task called more heavily on item memory. Experiment 3 tested short-term order memory with an order recognition test: Each word list was repeated with or without the position of 2 adjacent items swapped. The ASD group showed poorer performance in all 3 experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that group differences were due to memory for the order of the items, not to memory for the items themselves. Confirming these findings, the results of Experiment 3 showed that the ASD group had more difficulty detecting a change in the temporal sequence of the items.  
  Call Number Serial 60  
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Author (up) Southwick, J.S.; Bigler, E.D.; Froehlich, A.; Dubray, M.B.; Alexander, A.L.; Lange, N.; Lainhart, J.E. file  url
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  Title Memory functioning in children and adolescents with autism Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 25 Issue 6 Pages 702-710  
  Keywords Adolescent; Autistic Disorder--complications; Child; Child, Preschool; Developmental Disabilities--etiology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Memory Disorders--etiology; Mental Recall--physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Verbal Learning--physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Memory functioning in children and adolescents ages 5-19 with autism (n = 50) and typically developing controls (n = 36) was assessed using a clinical assessment battery, the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). METHOD: Participant groups were statistically comparable in age, nonverbal IQ, handedness, and head circumference, and were administered the TOMAL. RESULTS: Test performance on the TOMAL demonstrated broad differences in memory functioning in the autism group, across multiple task formats, including verbal and nonverbal, immediate and delayed, attention and concentration, sequential recall, free recall, associative recall, and multiple-trial learning memory. All index and nearly all subtest differences remained significant even after comparing a subset of the autism group (n = 36) and controls that were matched for verbal IQ (p > .05). However, retention of previously remembered information after a delay was similar in autism and controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that performance on measures of episodic memory is broadly reduced in autism, and support the conclusion that information encoding and organization, possibly due to inefficient cognitive processing strategies, rather than storage and retrieval, are the primary factors that limit memory performance in autism.  
  Call Number Serial 61  
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