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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
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  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Alapin, I.; Fichten, C.S.; Libman, E.; Creti, L.; Bailes, S.; Wright, J. file  url
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  Title How is good and poor sleep in older adults and college students related to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ability to concentrate? Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 381-390  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Attention; Circadian Rhythm--physiology; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis, etiology; Disorders of Excessive Somnolence--diagnosis, etiology; Fatigue--diagnosis, etiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep--physiology; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders--complications, diagnosis; Students; Universities; Wakefulness--physiology  
  Abstract We compared good sleepers with minimally and highly distressed poor sleepers on three measures of daytime functioning: self-reported fatigue, sleepiness, and cognitive inefficiency. In two samples (194 older adults, 136 college students), we tested the hypotheses that (1) poor sleepers experience more problems with daytime functioning than good sleepers, (2) highly distressed poor sleepers report greater impairment in functioning during the day than either good sleepers or minimally distressed poor sleepers, (3) daytime symptoms are more closely related to psychological adjustment and to psychologically laden sleep variables than to quantitative sleep parameters, and (4) daytime symptoms are more closely related to longer nocturnal wake times than to shorter sleep times. Results in both samples indicated that poor sleepers reported more daytime difficulties than good sleepers. While low- and high-distress poor sleepers did not differ on sleep parameters, highly distressed poor sleepers reported consistently more difficulty in functioning during the day and experienced greater tension and depression than minimally distressed poor sleepers. Severity of all three daytime problems was generally significantly and positively related to poor psychological adjustment, psychologically laden sleep variables, and, with the exception of sleepiness, to quantitative sleep parameters. Results are used to discuss discrepancies between experiential and quantitative measures of daytime functioning.  
  Call Number Serial 216  
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Author (up) Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M. file  url
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  Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult  
  Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.  
  Call Number Serial 278  
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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M. file  url
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  Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246  
  Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.  
  Call Number Serial 1292  
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Author (up) Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R. file  url
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  Title Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-21  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.  
  Call Number Serial 235  
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Author (up) Avery, D.H.; Wildschiodtz, G.; Smallwood, R.G.; Martin, D.; Rafaelsen, O.J. file  url
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  Title REM latency and core temperature relationships in primary depression Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Psychiatr Scand  
  Volume 74 Issue 3 Pages 269-280  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aging/physiology; Bipolar Disorder/*physiopathology; *Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm; Depressive Disorder/*physiopathology; Female; Humans; Male; Menopause; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology; Sleep, REM/*physiology  
  Abstract REM latency and rectal and ear canal temperature were studied simultaneously in 11 controls and nine depressed patients; seven of the patients were studied when recovered. REM latency was shorter in the depressed group compared with controls and lengthened with recovery. The nocturnal and ear canal temperatures were higher in the depressed group compared with controls and decreased with recovery. REM latency and the nocturnal rectal temperature were negatively correlated when all the nights of the depressed patients were analyzed (r = -0.44) and when all the nights of the subjects were analyzed (r = -0.44). REM latency and nocturnal ear canal temperatures were negatively correlated when all the nights of the control group were analyzed (r = -0.34). The timing of the temperature rhythm did not appear to be correlated with the REM latency.  
  Call Number Serial 1148  
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Author (up) Benowitz, N.L.; Dains, K.M.; Dempsey, D.; Wilson, M.; Jacob, P. file  url
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  Title Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Abbreviated Journal Nicotine Tob Res  
  Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages 772-783  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans/psychology; Aged; Carcinogens/analysis; Cotinine/blood; European Continental Ancestry Group/psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nicotine/*blood/urine; Nitrosamines/urine; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/urine; Pyridines/urine; San Francisco; Smoking/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Tobacco Use Disorder/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Young Adult  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Black smokers are reported to have higher lung cancer rates and greater tobacco dependence at lower levels of cigarette consumption compared to non-Hispanic White smokers. We studied the relationship between cigarettes per day (CPD) and biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Black and White smokers. METHODS: In 128 Black and White smokers, we measured plasma nicotine and its main proximate metabolite cotinine, urine nicotine equivalents, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites. RESULTS: The dose-response between CPD and nicotine equivalents, and NNAL and PAH was flat for Black but positive for White smokers (Race x CPD interaction, all ps < .05). Regression estimates for the Race x CPD interactions were 0.042 (95% CI 0.013-0.070), 0.054 (0.023-0.086), and 0.028 (0.004-0.052) for urine nicotine equivalents, NNAL, and PAHs, respectively. In contrast there was a strong correlation between nicotine equivalents and NNAL and PAH independent of race. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure per individual cigarette was inversely related to CPD. This inverse correlation was stronger in Black compared to White smokers and stronger in menthol compared to regular cigarette smokers (not mutually adjusted). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that Blacks on average smoke cigarettes differently than White smokers such that CPD predicts smoke intake more poorly in Black than in White smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 368  
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Author (up) Bignami, A.; Eng, L.F.; Dahl, D.; Uyeda, C.T. file  url
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  Title Localization of the glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes by immunofluorescence Type Journal Article
  Year 1972 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 43 Issue 2 Pages 429-435  
  Keywords Animals; Antibodies; Antibody Formation; Brain/*pathology; *Brain Chemistry; Cerebellum/immunology; Cross Reactions; Dementia/pathology; Dogs/immunology; *Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Gliosis/pathology; Guinea Pigs/immunology; Humans; Immune Sera; Male; Medulla Oblongata/immunology; Middle Aged; *Nerve Tissue Proteins; *Neuroglia; Optic Nerve/immunology; Rabbits/immunology; Rats/immunology  
  Abstract The glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein, a brain specific protein extracted from severely gliosed human tissue, is not species specific; cross-reaction occurs between anti-human GFA protein antibodies and brain extracts of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and dog. Using anti-GFA protein antiserum, astrocytes are selectively stained with the indirect immunofluorescence technique in both normal and pathological (gliosed) brain tissue.  
  Call Number Serial 113  
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Author (up) Boeuf-Cazou, O.; Bongue, B.; Ansiau, D.; Marquie, J.-C.; Lapeyre-Mestre, M. file  url
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  Title Impact of long-term benzodiazepine use on cognitive functioning in young adults: the VISAT cohort Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Clin Pharmacol  
  Volume 67 Issue 10 Pages 1045-1052  
  Keywords Adult; Aptitude/drug effects; Benzodiazepines/*administration & dosage/adverse effects; Cognition/*drug effects; Cohort Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Memory, Long-Term/drug effects; Mental Recall/drug effects; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Sex Factors  
  Abstract PURPOSE: Results from a number of studies have suggested a relationship between cognitive alteration and benzodiazepine use in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of benzodiazepine use on cognitive functions in a young adult population. METHODS: This study included 1,019 French salaried workers from the VISAT (Aging, Health and Work) cohort whose objective was to determine the long-term impact of working conditions on health and aging. Data were collected during interviews by occupational physicians in 1996, 2001 and 2006. Cognitive function was assessed using five cognitive tests (immediate free recall test, delayed free recall test, recognition test, Digit Symbol Substitution Subtest and visual search speed test). Cognitive scores obtained after a 10-year follow-up were investigated among three categories of benzodiazepine users, namely, non-users, occasional users and long-term users, using analysis of covariance models adjusted for several potential confounders in men and women separately. RESULTS: In the course of the 10 year-follow-up, 3.9% of subjects were defined as occasional users of benzodiazepine and 7.5% as long-term users. The analysis revealed a significant alteration of long-term memory in women whereas there was no significant association in men. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of benzodiazepine leads to specific impairment in long-term memory only in women.  
  Call Number Serial 265  
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Author (up) Bowler, D.M.; Gaigg, S.B.; Gardiner, J.M. file  url
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  Title Effects of related and unrelated context on recall and recognition by adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neuropsychologia Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychologia  
  Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 993-999  
  Keywords Adult; Association Learning--physiology; Autistic Disorder--physiopathology, psychology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intelligence Tests; Male; Mental Recall--physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Recognition (Psychology)--physiology  
  Abstract Memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by greater difficulties with recall rather than recognition and with a diminished use of semantic or associative relatedness in the aid of recall. Two experiments are reported that test the effects of item-context relatedness on recall and recognition in adults with high-functioning ASD (HFA) and matched typical comparison participants. In both experiments, participants studied words presented inside a red rectangle and were told to ignore context words presented outside the rectangle. Context words were either related or unrelated to the study words. The results showed that relatedness of context enhanced recall for the typical group only. However, recognition was enhanced by relatedness in both groups of participants. On a behavioural level, these findings confirm the Task Support Hypothesis [Bowler, D. M., Gardiner, J. M., & Berthollier, N. (2004). Source memory in Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 533-542], which states that individuals with ASD will show greater difficulty on memory tests that provide little support for retrieval. The findings extend this hypothesis by showing that it operates at the level of relatedness between studied items and incidentally encoded context. By showing difficulties in memory for associated items, the findings are also consistent with conjectures that implicate medial temporal lobe and frontal lobe dysfunction in the memory difficulties of individuals with ASD.  
  Call Number Serial 57  
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