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Author Hazuda, H.P.; Comeaux, P.J.; Stern, M.P.; Haffner, S.M.; Eifler, C.W.; Rosenthal, M. file  url
  Title (up) A comparison of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans in epidemiologic research. Methodological findings from the San Antonio Heart Study Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol  
  Volume 123 Issue 1 Pages 96-112  
  Keywords Adult; Age Factors; *Epidemiologic Methods; Female; Hispanic Americans/*classification; Humans; Male; Mexico/ethnology; Middle Aged; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Texas  
  Abstract Because the issue of how to empirically identify Mexican Americans in health-related research is still unresolved, the authors compared the performance of three indicators for identifying Mexican Americans across five distinct population subgroups: men and women in two age strata, and residents in low, middle, and high socioeconomic neighborhoods. Individual surname had the lowest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values in the pooled population sample and varied the most widely on these parameters across population subgroups. Parental surnames, which are available on vital statistics and could easily be added to other health records used in secondary analyses, offered a significant improvement over individual surname in classifying persons as Mexican American. The San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) algorithm, a nine-item indicator which uses parental surnames, birthplace of both parents, self-declared ethnic identity, and ethnic background of grandparents, had the highest sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values and varied the least on these parameters across different sex, age, and socioeconomic status population subgroups. The performance of all indicators was lower at the higher socioeconomic status levels. The findings suggest that it may be useful to use parental surnames as an indicator for Mexican-American ethnicity in research involving vital statistics and to add parental surnames to other health records frequently used in secondary analyses. Since the SAHS algorithm can be adapted for use with non-Mexican origin Hispanic subgroups, it may be a useful indicator for Mexican-American (or other Hispanic) ethnicity in survey research.  
  Call Number Serial 1381  
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Author Bryant, R.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.; Creamer, M.; McFarlane, A.C.; Silove, D. file  url
  Title (up) A multisite analysis of the fluctuating course of posttraumatic stress disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication JAMA Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal JAMA Psychiatry  
  Volume 70 Issue 8 Pages 839-846  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Australia/epidemiology; Brain Injuries/diagnosis/epidemiology/*psychology; *Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Injury Severity Score; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Severity of Illness Index; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis/epidemiology/*psychology; Stress, Psychological/complications/diagnosis/epidemiology; Time Factors; Young Adult  
  Abstract IMPORTANCE: Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accounts for approximately 25% of PTSD cases. Current models do not adequately explain the delayed increases in PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. OBJECTIVE: To test the roles of initial psychiatric reactions, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and ongoing stressors on delayed-onset PTSD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this prospective cohort study, patients were selected from recent admissions to 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia. A total of 1084 traumatically injured patients were assessed during hospital admission from April 1, 2004, through February 28, 2006, and 785 (72.4%) were followed up at 3, 12, and 24 months after injury. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Severity of PTSD was determined at each assessment with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. RESULTS: Of those who met PTSD criteria at 24 months, 44.1% reported no PTSD at 3 months and 55.9% had subsyndromal or full PTSD. In those who displayed subsyndromal or full PTSD at 3 months, PTSD severity at 24 months was predicted by prior psychiatric disorder, initial PTSD symptom severity, and type of injury. In those who displayed no PTSD at 3 months, PTSD severity at 24 months was predicted by initial PTSD symptom severity, MTBI, length of hospitalization, and the number of stressful events experienced between 3 and 24 months. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data highlight the complex trajectories of PTSD symptoms over time. This study also points to the roles of ongoing stress and MTBI in delayed cases of PTSD and suggests the potential of ongoing stress to compound initial stress reactions and lead to a delayed increase in PTSD symptom severity. This study also provides initial evidence that MTBI increases the risk of delayed PTSD symptoms, particularly in those with no acute symptoms.  
  Call Number Serial 1306  
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Author Christiansen, S.; Oettingen, G.; Dahme, B.; Klinger, R. file  url
  Title (up) A short goal-pursuit intervention to improve physical capacity: a randomized clinical trial in chronic back pain patients Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 149 Issue 3 Pages 444-452  
  Keywords Adult; Chronic Disease; Cognitive Therapy/*methods; Exercise Therapy/*methods; Exercise Tolerance/*physiology; Female; *Goals; Humans; Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional; Low Back Pain/physiopathology/psychology/*rehabilitation; Male; Middle Aged; Muscle Weakness/physiopathology/psychology/*rehabilitation; Pain Measurement/methods; Physical Fitness/*physiology; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract The present study tested a short intervention using goal-pursuit strategies to increase physical capacity in pain patients. Sixty chronic back pain patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Both groups followed a 3-week conventional back pain program at an outpatient back pain center. Instead of routine treatment, the intervention group received a one-hour intervention consisting of a combination of (a) a goal-setting strategy (i.e., mental contrasting, MC) aimed at commitment to improved physical capacity, (b) a short cognitive behavioral therapy-oriented problem-solving approach (CBT) to help patients overcome the obstacles associated with improving physical capacity, and (c) a goal-pursuit strategy, i.e., implementation intentions (II) aimed at performing physical exercise regularly. At two follow-ups (3 weeks after discharge and 3 months after returning home) the MCII-CBT group had increased its physical capacity significantly more than the control group as measured by both behavioral measures (ergometer, lifting) and subjective ratings. Findings are discussed with relation to the use of the intervention as a specific treatment to increase chronic pain patients' motivation to be physically active.  
  Call Number Serial 2070  
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Author Peretz, I.; Brattico, E.; Tervaniemi, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Abnormal electrical brain responses to pitch in congenital amusia Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Annals of Neurology Abbreviated Journal Ann Neurol  
  Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 478-482  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation/methods; Brain/pathology/*physiopathology; Brain Mapping; Case-Control Studies; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Evoked Potentials, Auditory/*physiology; Female; Humans; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods; Male; Middle Aged; *Music; Perceptual Disorders/*physiopathology; Pitch Discrimination/*physiology; Pitch Perception/*physiology; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract Congenital amusia is a lifelong disability that prevents afflicted individuals from enjoying music as ordinary people do. The deficit is limited to music and cannot be explained by prior brain lesion, hearing loss, or any cognitive or socio-affective disturbance. Recent behavioral results suggest that this disorder is critically dependent on fine-grained pitch discrimination. Here, we present novel electrophysiological evidence that this disorder can be traced down to a right-lateralized N2-P3 response elicited by pitch changes. This abnormal brain response begins as early as 200 milliseconds after tone onset and may serve as a marker of an anomaly in music acquisition.  
  Call Number Serial 335  
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Author Lyness, K.S.; Thompson, D.E. file  url
  Title (up) Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication The Journal of Applied Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Psychol  
  Volume 82 Issue 3 Pages 359-375  
  Keywords Adult; *Career Mobility; Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Job Satisfaction; Male; Middle Aged; Organizational Culture; Salaries and Fringe Benefits; Social Justice  
  Abstract In this study the authors compare career and work experiences of executive women and men. Female (n = 51) and male (n = 56) financial services executives in comparable jobs were studied through archival information on organizational outcomes and career histories, and survey measures of work experiences. Similarities were found in several organizational outcomes, such as compensation, and many work attitudes. Important differences were found, however, with women having less authority, receiving fewer stock options, and having less international mobility than men. Women at the highest executive levels reported more obstacles than lower level women. The gender differences coupled with women's lower satisfaction with future career opportunities raise questions about whether women are truly above the glass ceiling or have come up against a 2nd, higher ceiling.  
  Call Number Serial 270  
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Author Buchanan, K.E.; Bardi, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The Journal of Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Soc Psychol  
  Volume 150 Issue 3 Pages 235-237  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; *Altruism; *Exploratory Behavior; Female; Habituation, Psychophysiologic; Happiness; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Personal Satisfaction; Young Adult  
  Abstract The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction.  
  Call Number Serial 367  
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Author Buckland, G.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Agudo, A.; Vilardell, M.; Berenguer, A.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Arriola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Basterretxea, M.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Cirera, L.; Dorronsoro, M.; Egues, N.; Huerta, J.M.; Larranaga, N.; Marin, P.; Martinez, C.; Molina, E.; Navarro, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M.-J.; Tormo, M.-J.; Moreno-Iribas, C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title (up) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC Cohort Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol  
  Volume 170 Issue 12 Pages 1518-1529  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Body Weights and Measures; Coronary Disease/*epidemiology; *Diet, Mediterranean; Female; Health Behavior; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Spain/epidemiology  
  Abstract No known cohort study has investigated whether the Mediterranean diet can reduce incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events in a Mediterranean population. This study examined the relation between Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of incident CHD events in the 5 Spanish centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Analysis included 41,078 participants aged 29-69 years, recruited in 1992-1996 and followed up until December 2004 (mean follow-up:10.4 years). Confirmed incident fatal and nonfatal CHD events were analyzed according to Mediterranean diet adherence, measured by using an 18-unit relative Mediterranean diet score. A total of 609 participants (79% male) had a fatal or nonfatal confirmed acute myocardial infarction (n = 468) or unstable angina requiring revascularization (n = 141). After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized CHD risk factors, high compared with low relative Mediterranean diet score was associated with a significant reduction in CHD risk (hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77). A 1-unit increase in relative Mediterranean diet score was associated with a 6% reduced risk of CHD (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.97), with similar risk reductions by sex. Mediterranean diet adherence was associated with a significantly reduced CHD risk in this Mediterranean country, supporting its role in primary prevention of CHD in healthy populations.  
  Call Number Serial 135  
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Author Henzl, M.R.; Corson, S.L.; Moghissi, K.; Buttram, V.C.; Berqvist, C.; Jacobson, J. file  url
  Title (up) Administration of nasal nafarelin as compared with oral danazol for endometriosis. Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 318 Issue 8 Pages 485-489  
  Keywords Administration, Intranasal; Administration, Oral; Adolescent; Adult; Clinical Trials as Topic; Danazol/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Double-Blind Method; Endometriosis/*drug therapy; Estradiol/blood; Female; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*analogs & derivatives; Humans; Middle Aged; Nafarelin; Pregnancy/drug effects; Progesterone/blood; Prospective Studies; Uterine Neoplasms/*drug therapy  
  Abstract Treatment with nafarelin, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, reversibly inhibits ovarian function and induces hypoestrogenemia. To determine the efficacy of such hormonal manipulation in the treatment of endometriosis, we randomly assigned 213 patients with laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis to receive, for six months, either nafarelin by nasal spray (400 or 800 micrograms per day) or oral danazol (800 mg per day). Placebo nasal spray and placebo tablets were used to double blind the study. Pretreatment and post-treatment laparoscopies were compared by means of the American Fertility Society's scoring system. More than 80 percent of the patients in each treatment group had a reduction in the extent of disease as assessed by laparoscopy. The mean laparoscopic scores decreased from 21.9 to 12.6 with 800 micrograms of nafarelin, from 20.4 to 11.7 with 400 micrograms of nafarelin, and from 18.4 to 10.5 with danazol (P = 0.0001 within each group; there were no statistically significant differences between the groups). The percentage of women with severely painful symptoms of endometriosis decreased from about 40 percent to 5 to 10 percent, whereas the percentage with no or minimal discomfort rose from 25 to 70 percent. Of the 149 patients who tried to become pregnant, 58 (39 percent) succeeded after the completion of treatment; similar rates of pregnancy applied to the three treatment groups. Danazol use decreased high-density lipoprotein levels and increased low-density lipoprotein levels. These changes were not observed in nafarelin users, but a higher percentage of them reported hot flashes and decreased libido. We conclude that nafarelin is an effective agent for treating endometriosis and has few side effects other than hypoestrogenism.  
  Call Number Serial 1028  
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Author Turner, T.L.; Stevinson, C. file  url
  Title (up) Affective outcomes during and after high-intensity exercise in outdoor green and indoor gym settings Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Environmental Health Research Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Health Res  
  Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 106-116  
  Keywords Adult; *Affect; *Environment; Exercise/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Perception; Young Adult; Psychological well-being; affect; natural environments; physical activity  
  Abstract Outdoor exercise settings promote greater psychological well-being than synthetic equivalents, although the influence of the exercise context has not been investigated at high exercise intensities. This study compared the psychological effects of high-intensity exercise in outdoor green and indoor gym settings in 22 adult runners using a randomized repeated measures design. Affect and perceived exertion were assessed before, during, and after a 6000-m run with the second half completed at maximum effort. Perceived exertion and activation increased in a progressive manner from baseline to 6000 m, and decreased during the 10-min recovery post-run. Non-significant reductions in affective valence were observed between 3000 and 6000 m, followed by a significant increase post-run. Outcomes did not differ at any time point between the settings. This study suggested that regular runners experience positive affective responses during and after high-intensity exercise in both a natural outdoor environment and an indoor gym.  
  Call Number Serial 1807  
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Author Khemka, V.K.; Bagchi, D.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Bir, A.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Biswas, A.; Basu, D.; Chakrabarti, S. file  url
  Title (up) Altered serum levels of adipokines and insulin in probable Alzheimer's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD Abbreviated Journal J Alzheimers Dis  
  Volume 41 Issue 2 Pages 525-533  
  Keywords Adiponectin/*blood; Aged; Alzheimer Disease/*blood/diagnosis; Blood Chemical Analysis; Female; Humans; Immunoassay; Insulin/*blood; Leptin/*blood; Male; Middle Aged; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Adiponectin; Alzheimer's disease; amyloid-beta; insulin; leptin  
  Abstract Cerebral hypometabolism of glucose, weight loss, and decreased food intake are characteristic features of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A systematic study on the serum levels of adipokines and insulin, the major hormones regulating energy metabolism, food intake, and body weight, in sporadic AD is necessary. The present study compares the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and insulin, measured by commercially available immuno-assay kits, between controls and sporadic AD subjects. The results show a conspicuous decrease in the level of leptin, a dramatic rise in the level of adiponectin, and also a statistically significant increase in insulin level, in the blood of AD subjects, with respect to controls. The changes in the serum levels of adiponectin and insulin in AD are positively correlated with the severity of dementia. Likewise, the serum level of leptin in AD subjects is negatively correlated with the degree of dementia. The changes in the levels of adipokines and insulin have implications in the amyloid pathology, neurodegeneration, and hypometabolism of glucose existing in the AD brain.  
  Call Number Serial 1937  
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