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Author Gajer, P.; Brotman, R.M.; Bai, G.; Sakamoto, J.; Schutte, U.M.E.; Zhong, X.; Koenig, S.S.K.; Fu, L.; Ma, Z.S.; Zhou, X.; Abdo, Z.; Forney, L.J.; Ravel, J. file  url
openurl 
Title Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Science Translational Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sci Transl Med  
Volume 4 Issue 132 Pages 132ra52  
Keywords Bacteria/classification/genetics; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Metabolome; Metabolomics; Metagenome/genetics/*physiology; Models, Biological; Phylogeny; Time Factors; Vagina/*microbiology; Microbiome  
Abstract Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis.  
Call Number Serial 2175  
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Author Tor, E.; Pease, D.L.; Ball, K.A. file  url
openurl 
Title How does drag affect the underwater phase of a swimming start? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Applied Biomechanics Abbreviated Journal J Appl Biomech  
Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 8-12  
Keywords Adult; Biomechanical Phenomena; Female; Humans; Male; Models, Biological; Stress, Mechanical; Swimming/*physiology; Task Performance and Analysis; *Water; Water Movements; Young Adult  
Abstract During the underwater phase of the swimming start drag forces are constantly acting to slow the swimmer down. The current study aimed to quantify total drag force as well as the specific contribution of wave drag during the underwater phase of the swimming start. Swimmers were towed at three different depths (surface, 0.5 m, 1.0 m) and four speeds (1.6, 1.9, 2.0, 2.5 m . s(-1)), totaling 12 conditions. Wave drag and total drag were measured for each trial. Mixed modeling and plots were then used to determine the relationships between each towing condition and the amount of drag acting on the swimmer. The results of this study show large decreases in total drag as depth increases, regardless of speed (-19.7% at 0.5 m and -23.8% at 1.0 m). This is largely due to the significant reduction in wave drag as the swimmers traveled at greater depth. It is recommended that swimmers travel at least 0.5 m below the surface to avoid excessive drag forces. Swimmers should also perform efficient breakouts when transitioning into free swimming to reduce the duration spent just below the surface where drag values are reported at their highest.  
Call Number Serial 2010  
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Author Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A. file  url
openurl 
Title Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
Volume 36 Issue 10 Pages 940-949  
Keywords Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity  
Abstract Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.  
Call Number Serial 2002  
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Author Strahl, B.D.; Allis, C.D. file  url
openurl 
Title The language of covalent histone modifications Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
Volume 403 Issue 6765 Pages 41-45  
Keywords Acetylation; Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Chromatin/*physiology; Histones/chemistry/metabolism/*physiology; Humans; Lysine/physiology; Microtubules/physiology; Models, Biological; Molecular Sequence Data; Phosphorylation; Protein Processing, Post-Translational; Serine/metabolism  
Abstract Histone proteins and the nucleosomes they form with DNA are the fundamental building blocks of eukaryotic chromatin. A diverse array of post-translational modifications that often occur on tail domains of these proteins has been well documented. Although the function of these highly conserved modifications has remained elusive, converging biochemical and genetic evidence suggests functions in several chromatin-based processes. We propose that distinct histone modifications, on one or more tails, act sequentially or in combination to form a 'histone code' that is, read by other proteins to bring about distinct downstream events.  
Call Number Serial 1988  
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Author Naxerova, K.; Jain, R.K. file  url
openurl 
Title Using tumour phylogenetics to identify the roots of metastasis in humans Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Clin Oncol  
Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages 258-272  
Keywords Disease Progression; Epigenomics; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Genome-Wide Association Study; Humans; Microsatellite Repeats; Models, Biological; Neoplasm Metastasis/genetics/*pathology; Neoplasms/genetics; Neoplastic Cells, Circulating/pathology; Phylogeny; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide  
Abstract In cancer, much uncertainty remains regarding the origins of metastatic disease. Models of metastatic progression offer competing views on when dissemination occurs (at an early or late stage of tumour development), whether metastases at different sites arise independently and directly from the primary tumour or give rise to each other, and whether dynamic cell exchange occurs between synchronously growing lesions. Although it is probable that many routes can lead to the establishment of systemic disease, clinical observations suggest that distinct modes of metastasis might prevail in different tumour types. Gaining a more-comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary processes that underlie metastasis is not only relevant from a basic biological perspective, but also has profound clinical implications. The 'tree of life' of metastatic cancer contains answers to many outstanding questions about the development of systemic disease, but has only been reconstructed in a limited number of patients. Here we review available data on the phylogenetic relationships between primary solid tumours and their metastases, and examine to what degree they support different models of metastatic progression. We provide a description of experimental methods for lineage tracing in human cancer, ranging from broad DNA-sequencing approaches to more-targeted techniques, and discuss their respective benefits and caveats. Finally, we propose future research questions in the area of cancer phylogenetics.  
Call Number Serial 1928  
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