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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M. file  url
  Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246  
  Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.  
  Call Number Serial 1292  
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Author (up) Durant, N.H.; Bartman, B.; Person, S.D.; Collins, F.; Austin, S.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Patient provider communication about the health effects of obesity Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Patient Education and Counseling Abbreviated Journal Patient Educ Couns  
  Volume 75 Issue 1 Pages 53-57  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Obesity/*ethnology/*prevention & control; *Patient Education as Topic; *Professional-Patient Relations; United States  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: We assessed the influence of race/ethnicity and provider communication on overweight and obese patients' perceptions of the damage weight causes to their health. METHODS: The study included 1071 overweight and obese patients who completed the 2002 Community Health Center (CHC) User survey. We used logistic regression analyses to examine determinants of patients' perceptions of the impact of their weight on their health. Models were adjusted for covariates and weighting was used to account for the sampling design. RESULTS: Forty-one percent of respondents were overweight and 59% were obese. Non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics were half as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to believe weight was damaging to their health while controlling for covariates. Overweight/obese CHC patients who were told they were overweight by healthcare providers were almost nine times more likely to perceive that weight was damaging to their health compared to those not told. CONCLUSIONS: We observed large racial/ethnic disparities in the perception that overweight is unhealthy but provider communication may be a powerful tool for helping patients understand that overweight is damaging to health. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Given obesity is a national epidemic, further attention to the role of patient provider communication in illness is essential with important implications for both health professional training and health care provision.  
  Call Number Serial 402  
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Author (up) Feng, L.; Chiam, P.C.; Kua, E.-H.; Ng, T.P. file  url
  Title Use of complementary and alternative medicines and mental disorders in community-living Asian older adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Abbreviated Journal Arch Gerontol Geriatr  
  Volume 50 Issue 3 Pages 243-249  
  Keywords Aged; Aged, 80 and over; *Asian Continental Ancestry Group; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Complementary Therapies/*utilization; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression/therapy; Drug Utilization; *Drugs, Chinese Herbal; Female; Humans; Logistic Models; Male; Mental Disorders/*therapy; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Singapore  
  Abstract The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) and its link with mental health is poorly understood. It is not clear whether mentally ill persons use CAM because conventional medical care does not meet their needs. In a nationally representative random sample of 1092 individuals aged 60 in Singapore, we determined CAM use and the prevalence of mental disorders using Geriatric Mental State (GMS) and found that overall CAM use, predominantly Chinese herbal medicines, was reported by an estimated 42.7% of the population. Depression (odds ratio=OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.26-2.98) and poor self-rated mental health (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.25-4.80) were associated with CAM use, independently of other risks factors and correlates of CAM use. Although depressed Asians more frequently used CAM than conventional health care, we could find no evidence in this study to indicate that among individuals with depression, CAM users compared to nonusers, were less likely to seek treatment from general and mental health professionals or were more likely to have negative beliefs and attitudes about mental illnesses and its treatment. This is consistent with the common observation that the use of CAM complements rather than replaces conventional treatments.  
  Call Number Serial 1347  
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Author (up) He, Y.; Brunstrom-Hernandez, J.E.; Thio, L.L.; Lackey, S.; Gaebler-Spira, D.; Kuroda, M.M.; Stashinko, E.; Hoon, A.H.J.; Vargus-Adams, J.; Stevenson, R.D.; Lowenhaupt, S.; McLaughlin, J.F.; Christensen, A.; Dosa, N.P.; Butler, M.; Schwabe, A.; Lopez, C.; Roge, D.; Kennedy, D.; Tilton, A.; Krach, L.E.; Lewandowski, A.; Dai, H.; Gaedigk, A.; Leeder, J.S.; Jusko, W.J. file  url
  Title Population pharmacokinetics of oral baclofen in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The Journal of Pediatrics Abbreviated Journal J Pediatr  
  Volume 164 Issue 5 Pages 1181-1188.e8  
  Keywords Absorption; Administration, Oral; Adolescent; Baclofen/blood/*pharmacokinetics/therapeutic use; Body Weight; Cerebral Palsy/blood/*drug therapy; Child; Child, Preschool; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Administration Schedule; Female; Half-Life; Humans; Male; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Models, Statistical; Multivariate Analysis; Muscle Relaxants, Central/blood/*pharmacokinetics/therapeutic use  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral baclofen and assess impact of patient-specific covariates in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to support its clinical use. SUBJECTS DESIGN: Children (2-17 years of age) with CP received a dose of titrated oral baclofen from 2.5 mg 3 times a day to a maximum tolerated dose of up to 20 mg 4 times a day. PK sampling followed titration of 10-12 weeks. Serial R- and S-baclofen plasma concentrations were measured for up to 16 hours in 49 subjects. Population PK modeling was performed using NONMEM 7.1 (ICON PLC; Ellicott City, Maryland). RESULTS: R- and S-baclofen showed identical concentration-time profiles. Both baclofen enantiomers exhibited linear and dose/kg-proportional PK, and no sex differences were observed. Average baclofen terminal half-life was 4.5 hours. A 2-compartment PK model with linear elimination and transit absorption steps adequately described concentration-time profiles of both baclofen enantiomers. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance/F was 0.273 L/h/kg with 33.4% inter-individual variability (IIV), and the apparent volume of distribution (Vss/F) was 1.16 L/kg with 43.9% IIV. Delayed absorption was expressed by a mean transit time of 0.389 hours with 83.7% IIV. Body weight, a possible genetic factor, and age were determinants of apparent clearance in these children. CONCLUSION: The PK of oral baclofen exhibited dose-proportionality and were adequately described by a 2-compartment model. Our population PK findings suggest that baclofen dosage can be based on body weight (2 mg/kg per day) and the current baclofen dose escalation strategy is appropriate in the treatment of children with CP older than 2 years of age.  
  Call Number Serial 935  
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Author (up) Hoeft, F.; Walter, E.; Lightbody, A.A.; Hazlett, H.C.; Chang, C.; Piven, J.; Reiss, A.L. file  url
  Title Neuroanatomical differences in toddler boys with fragile x syndrome and idiopathic autism Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Archives of General Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Arch Gen Psychiatry  
  Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 295-305  
  Keywords Amygdala--pathology, physiopathology; Autistic Disorder--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Brain--pathology, physiopathology; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex--pathology, physiopathology; Child, Preschool; Communication; Developmental Disabilities--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Fragile X Syndrome--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Frontal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology; Genetic Diseases, Inborn--genetics; Gyrus Cinguli--pathology, physiopathology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Infant; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Reference Values; Social Behavior; Stereotyped Behavior--physiology; Temporal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder for which there is no known unifying etiology or pathogenesis. Many conditions of atypical development can lead to autism, including fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is presently the most common known single-gene cause of autism. OBJECTIVE: To examine whole-brain morphometric patterns that discriminate young boys with FXS from those with idiopathic autism (iAUT) as well as control participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, in vivo neuroimaging study. SETTING: Academic medical centers. PATIENTS: Young boys (n = 165; aged 1.57-4.15 years) diagnosed as having FXS or iAUT as well as typically developing and idiopathic developmentally delayed controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Univariate voxel-based morphometric analyses, voxel-based morphometric multivariate pattern classification (linear support vector machine), and clustering analyses (self-organizing map). RESULTS: We found that frontal and temporal gray and white matter regions often implicated in social cognition, including the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal region, temporal pole, amygdala, insula, and dorsal cingulum, were aberrant in FXS and iAUT as compared with controls. However, these differences were in opposite directions for FXS and iAUT relative to controls; in general, greater volume was seen in iAUT compared with controls, who in turn had greater volume than FXS. Multivariate analysis showed that the overall pattern of brain structure in iAUT generally resembled that of the controls more than FXS, both with and without AUT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that FXS and iAUT are associated with distinct neuroanatomical patterns, further underscoring the neurobiological heterogeneity of iAUT.  
  Call Number Serial 17  
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Author (up) Nitschke, J.B.; Heller, W.; Palmieri, P.A.; Miller, G.A. file  url
  Title Contrasting patterns of brain activity in anxious apprehension and anxious arousal Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Psychophysiology  
  Volume 36 Issue 5 Pages 628-637  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; *Anxiety/classification/physiopathology; Arousal/*physiology; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology; Electroencephalography; Fear/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; *Models, Neurological; *Models, Psychological; Multivariate Analysis  
  Abstract Evidence suggests that a distinction between anxious apprehension (worry) and anxious arousal (somatic anxiety) might account for some discrepancies in the literature examining brain activity in anxiety. In the current study, we compared the regional brain activity of groups of anxious apprehension and anxious arousal participants, selected on the basis of self-report measures previously shown to be psychometrically distinct from each other and from a specific measure of depression. Patterns of hemispheric asymmetry in electroencephalogram alpha distinguished the two types of anxiety, with the anxious arousal group showing more right than left activity. No significant asymmetry was found for the anxious apprehension group. The results provide further support for contrasting patterns of brain activity in distinct types of anxiety. Research is needed to specify further the topography and functional significance of this distinction.  
  Call Number Serial 1166  
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Author (up) Offer, A.; Pechey, R.; Ulijaszek, S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Obesity under affluence varies by welfare regimes: the effect of fast food, insecurity, and inequality Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Economics and Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Econ Hum Biol  
  Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 297-308  
  Keywords Australia/epidemiology; Canada/epidemiology; Europe/epidemiology; Fast Foods/*economics; Food Supply/*economics; *Health Status Disparities; Health Surveys; Humans; Models, Economic; Multivariate Analysis; Obesity/*economics/epidemiology/psychology; Prejudice; *Social Class; Social Welfare/*economics/psychology; Stress, Psychological; United States/epidemiology  
  Abstract Among affluent countries, those with market-liberal welfare regimes (which are also English-speaking) tend to have the highest prevalence of obesity. The impact of cheap, accessible high-energy food is often invoked in explanation. An alternative approach is that overeating is a response to stress, and that competition, uncertainty, and inequality make market-liberal societies more stressful. This ecological regression meta-study pools 96 body-weight surveys from 11 countries c. 1994-2004. The fast-food 'shock' impact is found to work most strongly in market-liberal countries. Economic insecurity, measured in several different ways, was almost twice as powerful, while the impact of inequality was weak, and went in the opposite direction.  
  Call Number Serial 1095  
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Author (up) Reilly, P.A.; Lehr, T.; Haertter, S.; Connolly, S.J.; Yusuf, S.; Eikelboom, J.W.; Ezekowitz, M.D.; Nehmiz, G.; Wang, S.; Wallentin, L. file  url
  Title The effect of dabigatran plasma concentrations and patient characteristics on the frequency of ischemic stroke and major bleeding in atrial fibrillation patients: the RE-LY Trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of the American College of Cardiology Abbreviated Journal J Am Coll Cardiol  
  Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 321-328  
  Keywords Age Factors; Aged; Antithrombins/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*blood; Aspirin/therapeutic use; Atrial Fibrillation/blood/drug therapy; Benzimidazoles/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*blood; Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology; Embolism/prevention & control; Female; Hemorrhage/*epidemiology; Humans; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use; Pyridines/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*blood; Risk Assessment; Stroke/*epidemiology/prevention & control; Af; Asa; Cad; Ci; CrCl; De; De 110; De 150; Pk; See; aspirin; atrial fibrillation; bid; bleeding; confidence interval; coronary artery disease; creatinine clearance; dabigatran; dabigatran etexilate; dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily; dabigatran etexilate 150 mg twice daily; pharmacokinetic(s); pharmacokinetics; stroke; systemic embolic event(s); twice daily  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to analyze the impact of dabigatran plasma concentrations, patient demographics, and aspirin (ASA) use on frequencies of ischemic strokes/systemic emboli and major bleeds in atrial fibrillation patients. BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of dabigatran etexilate were demonstrated in the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, but a therapeutic concentration range has not been defined. METHODS: In a pre-specified analysis of RE-LY, plasma concentrations of dabigatran were determined in patients treated with dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily (bid) or 150 mg bid and correlated with the clinical outcomes of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding using univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression models. Patient demographics and ASA use were assessed descriptively and as covariates. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations were obtained from 9,183 patients, with 112 ischemic strokes/systemic emboli (1.3%) and 323 major bleeds (3.8%) recorded. Dabigatran levels were dependent on renal function, age, weight, and female sex, but not ethnicity, geographic region, ASA use, or clopidogrel use. A multiple logistic regression model (c-statistic 0.657, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 0.71) showed that the risk of ischemic events was inversely related to trough dabigatran concentrations (p = 0.045), with age and previous stroke (both p < 0.0001) as significant covariates. Multiple logistic regression (c-statistic 0.715, 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.74) showed major bleeding risk increased with dabigatran exposure (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), ASA use (p < 0.0003), and diabetes (p = 0.018) as significant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic stroke and bleeding outcomes were correlated with dabigatran plasma concentrations. Age was the most important covariate. Individual benefit-risk might be improved by tailoring dabigatran dose after considering selected patient characteristics. (Randomized Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulant Therapy [RE-LY] With Dabigatran Etexilate; NCT00262600).  
  Call Number Serial 1005  
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Author (up) Roy, M.; Mailhot, J.-P.; Gosselin, N.; Paquette, S.; Peretz, I. file  url
  Title Modulation of the startle reflex by pleasant and unpleasant music Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 71 Issue 1 Pages 37-42  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Auditory Perception/*physiology; Brain/*physiology; Discriminant Analysis; Electroencephalography/methods; Emotions/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Multivariate Analysis; *Music; Reaction Time/physiology; Reflex, Startle/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract The issue of emotional feelings to music is the object of a classic debate in music psychology. Emotivists argue that emotions are really felt in response to music, whereas cognitivists believe that music is only representative of emotions. Psychophysiological recordings of emotional feelings to music might help to resolve the debate, but past studies have failed to show clear and consistent differences between musical excerpts of different emotional valence. Here, we compared the effects of pleasant and unpleasant musical excerpts on the startle eye blink reflex and associated body markers (such as the corrugator and zygomatic activity, skin conductance level and heart rate). The startle eye blink amplitude was larger and its latency was shorter during unpleasant compared with pleasant music, suggesting that the defensive emotional system was indeed modulated by music. Corrugator activity was also enhanced during unpleasant music, whereas skin conductance level was higher for pleasant excerpts. The startle reflex was the response that contributed the most in distinguishing pleasant and unpleasant music. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that emotions were felt in response to music, supporting the emotivist stance.  
  Call Number Serial 1747  
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Author (up) Sampedro-Piquero, P.; Zancada-Menendez, C.; Begega, A.; Rubio, S.; Arias, J.L. file  url
  Title Effects of environmental enrichment on anxiety responses, spatial memory and cytochrome c oxidase activity in adult rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Brain Research Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Bull  
  Volume 98 Issue Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; *Anxiety/enzymology/pathology/physiopathology; Disease Models, Animal; Electron Transport Complex IV/*metabolism; *Environment; Male; Maze Learning/physiology; Memory/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Space Perception/*physiology; Statistics as Topic; Time Factors; 4-Rawm; ANOVA of repeated measures; Acb; Bnst; BlA; Co; COx; CeA; Cg; Cytochrome c oxidase activity; Ee; Ee+Spl; Epm; Ezm; Elevated zero-maze; Environmental enrichment; Gc; Hpa; Il; Ltp; Manova; Mo; Od; Pl; PVNh; PVNt; Rm Anova; Radial-arm water maze; Spl; TbE; Wistar rat; accumbens nucleus; basolateral amygdala; bed nucleus stria terminalis; central amygdala; cingulate cortex; control group; cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry; dCA1 dCA3; dDG; dorsal dentate gyrus; dorsal hippocampal cornu ammonis; elevated plus-maze; elevated zero-maze; environmental enrichment; environmental enrichment group; environmental enrichment+spatial learning group; four-arm radial water maze; glucocorticoids; hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; infralimbic cortex; long-term potentiation; medial orbital cortex; multivariate analysis of variance; optical density; paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; paraventricular thalamic nucleus; prelimbic cortex; spatial learning group; time by entries; vCA1 vCA3; vDG; ventral dentate gyrus; ventral hippocampal cornu ammonis  
  Abstract We have studied the effect of an environmental enrichment (EE) protocol in adult Wistar rats on the activity in the elevated zero-maze (EZM), performance in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM) and we have also examined the changes in the neuronal metabolic activity of several brain regions related to anxiety response and spatial memory through cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry (COx). Our EE protocol had anxiolytic effect in the EZM; the animals spent more time and made more entries into the open quadrants, they had lower latency to enter into the open quadrant and lower levels of defecation. Also, the EE group showed fewer working memory and reference memory errors, as well as lesser distance travelled in the first day of the spatial training. In relation to the neuronal metabolic activity, EE reduced the COx activity in brain regions related to anxiety response, such as the infralimbic cortex, the paraventricular thalamic and hypothalamic nucleus, the basolateral amygdala, and the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, there were no significant differences between groups in the dorsal hippocampus, more related to spatial cognition. These results suggest a beneficial effect of EE on spatial memory as a result of reducing anxiety levels and the COx activity in brain regions involved in anxiety response. We also found a differential pattern of activation inside the hippocampus, suggesting that the dorsal hippocampus has a preferential involvement in spatial learning and memory, whereas the ventral hippocampus has a role in anxiety response.  
  Call Number Serial 1042  
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