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Author (up) Amato, P.R.; Keith, B. file  url
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  Title Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages 26-46  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development  
  Abstract This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 277  
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Author (up) Buchanan, C.M.; Maccoby, E.E.; Dornbusch, S.M. file  url
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  Title Caught between parents: adolescents' experience in divorced homes Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 62 Issue 5 Pages 1008-1029  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology; Anxiety/psychology; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/psychology; *Personality Development; Social Environment  
  Abstract This study examined adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents to see whether this construct helps to explain (1) variability in their postdivorce adjustment and (2) associations between family/child characteristics and adolescent adjustment. Adolescents 10 to 18 years old (N = 522) were interviewed by telephone 4 1/2 years after their parents' separation. Feeling caught between parents was related to high parental conflict and hostility and low parental cooperation. Being close to both parents was associated with low feelings of being caught. The relation between time spent with each parent and feeling caught depended on the coparenting relationship. Adolescents in dual residence were especially likely to feel caught when parents were in high conflict, and especially unlikely to feel caught when parents cooperated. Feeling caught was related to poor adjustment outcomes. Parental conflict was only related to adjustment outcomes indirectly, through adolescents' feelings of being caught.  
  Call Number Serial 281  
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Author (up) Forehand, R.; Biggar, H.; Kotchick, B.A. file  url
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  Title Cumulative risk across family stressors: short- and long-term effects for adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 119-128  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Analysis of Variance; Child; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Educational Measurement; Educational Status; *Family Relations; Female; Humans; Juvenile Delinquency/statistics & numerical data; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract This study examined the relationship between number of family risk factors during adolescence and three areas of psychosocial adjustment (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement) in adolescence and 6 years later in young adulthood. Risk factors examined included parental divorce, interparental conflict, maternal physical health problems, maternal depressive mood, and mother-adolescent relationship difficulties. The findings indicated both concurrent and long-term associations between number of family risk factors and psychosocial adjustment; however, the results differed based on area of adjustment examined and whether concurrent or longitudinal data were considered. Furthermore, a steep increase in adjustment difficulties occurred when number of risk factors increased from three to four. The results are discussed in the framework of four hypotheses which were tested, and clinical implications are delineated.  
  Call Number Serial 289  
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Author (up) Gershoff, E.T.; Grogan-Kaylor, A.; Lansford, J.E.; Chang, L.; Zelli, A.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Dodge, K.A. file  url
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  Title Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 81 Issue 2 Pages 487-502  
  Keywords Child; Child Behavior/*ethnology/*psychology; *Cross-Cultural Comparison; *Developing Countries; Female; Humans; Italy; Male; Motivation; Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/*ethnology/*psychology; Punishment; Reward; Social Values/*ethnology; *Socialization  
  Abstract This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects models revealed that mothers' use of corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and yelling were significantly related to more child aggression symptoms, whereas giving a time-out, using corporal punishment, expressing disappointment, and shaming were significantly related to greater child anxiety symptoms. Some moderation of these associations was found for children's perceptions of normativeness.  
  Call Number Serial 1733  
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Author (up) Hetherington, E.M.; Stanley-Hagan, M.; Anderson, E.R. file  url
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  Title Marital transitions. A child's perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication The American Psychologist Abbreviated Journal Am Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 303-312  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Child; *Child Development; *Divorce; Humans; Life Change Events; *Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development; *Social Environment  
  Abstract Despite a recent leveling off of the divorce rate, almost half of the children born in the last decade will experience the divorce of their parents, and most of these children will also experience the remarriage of their parents. Most children initially experience their parents' marital rearrangements as stressful; however, children's responses to their parents marital transitions are diverse. Whereas some exhibit remarkable resiliency and in the long term may actually be enhanced by coping with these transitions, others suffer sustained developmental delays or disruptions. Others appear to adapt well in the early stages of family reorganizations but show delayed effects that emerge at a later time, especially in adolescence. The long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se. In recent years, researchers have begun to move away from the view that single-parent and remarried families are atypical or pathogenic families and are focusing on the diversity of children's responses and to the factors that facilitate or disrupt the development and adjustment of children experiencing their parents' marital transitions.  
  Call Number Serial 283  
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Author (up) Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Emond, Y.; Jansen, A. file  url
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  Title From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 570-575  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Child, Preschool; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; *Fruit; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology; Psychology, Child; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract Overweight is increasing rapidly in children, compelling researchers to seek for determinants of adverse food intake. In a previous experiment it was found that manipulating the restriction of attractive snacks increased the desirability and intake of these snacks. In the present study, we tested whether this paradoxical restricting effect is also seen in relatively less attractive but healthy food, i.e. fruit. Will fruit become more desirable through restriction, and will children eat more forbidden fruit than non-forbidden fruit? Two groups of young children were forbidden to eat fruits and sweets, respectively, whereas a control group was invited to eat everything. Desire for sweets remained high in the sweets-prohibition condition, whereas it decreased in the fruit-prohibition and no-prohibition conditions. No group differences were found regarding the desire for fruit. With respect to intake, children in both the fruit- and the sweets-prohibition condition consumed more of the formerly forbidden food during a taste session as compared to the no-prohibition condition. In addition, total food intake was higher in the two prohibition conditions than in the no-prohibition condition. These data indicate that the adverse effects of restriction apply to both attractive unhealthy and relatively less attractive but healthy food.  
  Call Number Serial 1691  
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Author (up) Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Jansen, A. file  url
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  Title Do not eat the red food!: prohibition of snacks leads to their relatively higher consumption in children Type
  Year 2007 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 572-577  
  Keywords Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/*physiology; Child, Preschool; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Overweight/epidemiology/etiology/*psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology  
  Abstract Overweight is becoming more prevalent in children. Parents' behaviours play an important role in children's eating behaviour and weight status. In addition to modelling and providing meals, parents also have an influence by using control techniques. One frequently used technique is restriction of intake. In this study, it was tested whether a prohibition of food in the first phase would lead to an increase in desire for the target food and overeating in the second phase. Sure enough, desire increased significantly in the prohibition group, whereas it remained constant in the no-prohibition group. Though no significant differences between groups were found in the absolute consumption of the target food, the proportion of consumed target food (target food intake/total food intake) was significantly higher in the prohibition group. Finally, children whose parents imposed either very little or a lot of restriction at home consumed more kilocalories during the whole experiment, as opposed to children who were exposed to a moderate level of restriction at home. These data indicate that restriction can have adverse effects on children's food preference and caloric intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1941  
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Author (up) Johnston, J.R.; Kline, M.; Tschann, J.M. file  url
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  Title Ongoing postdivorce conflict: effects on children of joint custody and frequent access Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 576-592  
  Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Custody/*legislation & jurisprudence; Child Reactive Disorders/*psychology; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Communication; *Conflict (Psychology); Divorce/*legislation & jurisprudence; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Marriage; *Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development; San Francisco; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract Parental conflict and children's behavioral and social adjustment were measured at two periods in 100 families entrenched in custody and visitation disputes. More frequent access to both parents was associated with more emotional and behavioral problems in the children; different effects were noted for boys and girls.  
  Call Number Serial 284  
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Author (up) Pulley, C.; Galloway, A.T.; Webb, R.M.; Payne, L.O. file  url
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  Title Parental child feeding practices: how do perceptions of mother, father, sibling, and self vary? Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 80 Issue Pages 96-102  
  Keywords Body Mass Index; Child; Fathers; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Mothers; *Parent-Child Relations; Siblings; Socioeconomic Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires; Child feeding practices; Eating behavior; Family systems; Parent-child interactions  
  Abstract Mothers are important contributors to the development of eating behavior in children, but less is known about the influence of fathers. The purpose of this study was to investigate family perceptions of parental child feeding practices. Seventy two-parent American families including a mother, father, and two biologically related children participated in the study. Participants completed parent and child versions of the Child Feeding Questionnaire that assessed perceptions of parental control in child feeding. Most family member reports were positively correlated, indicating agreement about the use of the examined parental feeding practices; however, some salient differences between the reported behaviors of mothers and fathers were uncovered. Mothers reported using higher levels of monitoring and responsibility than fathers. In addition, fathers and children reported higher levels of paternal pressure related to feeding compared with mothers. Mothers and fathers used more pressure and felt more responsible for feeding younger children compared with older children. One interaction revealed that older male siblings reported the highest level of pressure from fathers. Reported differences in parents' use of child feeding practices suggest that mothers and fathers may have distinct interactions with their children regarding food. Paternal feeding practices are likely to have unique implications for understanding the development of children's eating behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 1939  
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Author (up) Rollins, B.Y.; Loken, E.; Savage, J.S.; Birch, L.L. file  url
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  Title Effects of restriction on children's intake differ by child temperament, food reinforcement, and parent's chronic use of restriction Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 73 Issue Pages 31-39  
  Keywords Appetite; Child, Preschool; *Diet; Eating; *Energy Intake; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Inhibition (Psychology); Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting; Parents; Pediatric Obesity/*etiology; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Risk Factors; Social Control, Informal; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Temperament  
  Abstract Parents' use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children's intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch's (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children's (3-5 y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, and to identify characteristics of children who were more susceptible to the negative effects of restriction. The experiment used a within-subjects design; 37 children completed the food reinforcement task and heights/weights were measured. Parents reported on their use of restrictive feeding practices and their child's inhibitory control and approach. Overall, the findings replicated those of and revealed that the effects of restriction differed by children's regulatory and appetitive tendencies. Greater increases in intake in response to restriction were observed among children lower in inhibitory control, higher in approach, who found the restricted food highly reinforcing, and who had previous experience with parental use of restriction. Results confirm that the use of restriction does not reduce children's consumption of these foods, particularly among children with lower regulatory or higher appetitive tendencies.  
  Call Number Serial 1940  
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