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Author (up) Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Emond, Y.; Jansen, A.
Title From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 570-575
Keywords Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Child, Preschool; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; *Fruit; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology; Psychology, Child; Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract Overweight is increasing rapidly in children, compelling researchers to seek for determinants of adverse food intake. In a previous experiment it was found that manipulating the restriction of attractive snacks increased the desirability and intake of these snacks. In the present study, we tested whether this paradoxical restricting effect is also seen in relatively less attractive but healthy food, i.e. fruit. Will fruit become more desirable through restriction, and will children eat more forbidden fruit than non-forbidden fruit? Two groups of young children were forbidden to eat fruits and sweets, respectively, whereas a control group was invited to eat everything. Desire for sweets remained high in the sweets-prohibition condition, whereas it decreased in the fruit-prohibition and no-prohibition conditions. No group differences were found regarding the desire for fruit. With respect to intake, children in both the fruit- and the sweets-prohibition condition consumed more of the formerly forbidden food during a taste session as compared to the no-prohibition condition. In addition, total food intake was higher in the two prohibition conditions than in the no-prohibition condition. These data indicate that the adverse effects of restriction apply to both attractive unhealthy and relatively less attractive but healthy food.
Call Number Serial 1691
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Author (up) Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Jansen, A.
Title Do not eat the red food!: prohibition of snacks leads to their relatively higher consumption in children Type
Year 2007 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 572-577
Keywords Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/*physiology; Child, Preschool; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Overweight/epidemiology/etiology/*psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology
Abstract Overweight is becoming more prevalent in children. Parents' behaviours play an important role in children's eating behaviour and weight status. In addition to modelling and providing meals, parents also have an influence by using control techniques. One frequently used technique is restriction of intake. In this study, it was tested whether a prohibition of food in the first phase would lead to an increase in desire for the target food and overeating in the second phase. Sure enough, desire increased significantly in the prohibition group, whereas it remained constant in the no-prohibition group. Though no significant differences between groups were found in the absolute consumption of the target food, the proportion of consumed target food (target food intake/total food intake) was significantly higher in the prohibition group. Finally, children whose parents imposed either very little or a lot of restriction at home consumed more kilocalories during the whole experiment, as opposed to children who were exposed to a moderate level of restriction at home. These data indicate that restriction can have adverse effects on children's food preference and caloric intake.
Call Number Serial 1941
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Author (up) Kelly, J.B.
Title Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
Volume 39 Issue 8 Pages 963-973
Keywords Adult; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/*psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Domestic Violence/*psychology; Humans; Marriage/*psychology; *Social Adjustment
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To review important research of the past decade in divorce, marital conflict, and children's adjustment and to describe newer divorce interventions. METHOD: Key empirical studies from 1990 to 1999 were surveyed regarding the impact of marital conflict, parental violence, and divorce on the psychological adjustment of children, adolescents, and young adults. RESULTS: Recent studies investigating the impact of divorce on children have found that many of the psychological symptoms seen in children of divorce can be accounted for in the years before divorce. The past decade also has seen a large increase in studies assessing complex variables within the marriage which profoundly affect child and adolescent adjustment, including marital conflict and violence and related parenting behaviors. This newer literature provides provocative and helpful information for forensic and clinical psychiatrists in their work with both married and divorcing families. CONCLUSIONS: While children of divorced parents, as a group, have more adjustment problems than do children of never-divorced parents, the view that divorce per se is the major cause of these symptoms must be reconsidered in light of newer research documenting the negative effects of troubled marriages on children.
Call Number Serial 285
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Author (up) Liem, D.G.; Mars, M.; De Graaf, C.
Title Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: role of parents Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite
Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 235-245
Keywords Adult; Child, Preschool; Diet Surveys; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Feeding Behavior/physiology/psychology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology/*psychology; Humans; Male; Parents/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Taste/physiology
Abstract We investigated the relationships in children between rules that restrict consumption of mono- and disaccharides (MDS), consumption of MDS and preferences for sucrose-containing orangeade. The background ideas of restriction rules we also investigated. To this end, 44 children (5.1+/-0.5 years) performed a rank-order and paired-comparison test of preference for five orangeades, which differed in sucrose concentration (0.14, 0.20, 0.29, 0.42, 0.61 M sucrose). Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning restriction rules and their children's consumption of MDS-containing foods. Stronger restriction rules were related to a lower consumption of beverages that contained MDS and to a lower consumption of MDS-containing foods during breakfast and lunch. The most freedom to choose foods that contain MDS was given during the afternoon. Fifty-five percent of the children who were highly restricted showed a preference for the highest concentration of sucrose in orangeade. None of these children preferred the orangeade with the lowest concentration of sucrose. While 19% of the children who were little restricted preferred the beverage with the lowest concentration of sucrose, 33% preferred the beverage with the highest concentration. These parents generally believed that sugar has a bad effect on health and had similar background ideas concerning restriction rules.
Call Number Serial 1942
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