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Author (up) Britton, J.C.; Rauch, S.L.; Rosso, I.M.; Killgore, W.D.S.; Price, L.M.; Ragan, J.; Chosak, A.; Hezel, D.M.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E.; Pauls, D.L.; Jenike, M.A.; Stewart, S.E. file  url
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  Title Cognitive inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 944-953  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention/physiology; Brain Mapping; Caudate Nucleus/physiopathology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Color Perception/*physiology; Corpus Striatum/physiopathology; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/*physiopathology/psychology; Orientation/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Reference Values; Reversal Learning/*physiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. METHOD: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets.  
  Call Number Serial 2043  
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Author (up) Gauthier, I.; Tarr, M.J.; Anderson, A.W.; Skudlarski, P.; Gore, J.C. file  url
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  Title Activation of the middle fusiform 'face area' increases with expertise in recognizing novel objects Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Nature Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Nat Neurosci  
  Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 568-573  
  Keywords Adult; *Face; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Recruitment, Neurophysiological/physiology; Temporal Lobe/*physiology  
  Abstract Part of the ventral temporal lobe is thought to be critical for face perception, but what determines this specialization remains unknown. We present evidence that expertise recruits the fusiform gyrus 'face area'. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure changes associated with increasing expertise in brain areas selected for their face preference. Acquisition of expertise with novel objects (greebles) led to increased activation in the right hemisphere face areas for matching of upright greebles as compared to matching inverted greebles. The same areas were also more activated in experts than in novices during passive viewing of greebles. Expertise seems to be one factor that leads to specialization in the face area.  
  Call Number Serial 2052  
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