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Author (up) Arai, L. file  url
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  Title Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: qualitative findings from research in English communities Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Health & Place Abbreviated Journal Health Place  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 87-98  
  Keywords Abortion, Induced/utilization; Adolescent; Adult; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Birth Rate; England; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Mothers/education/psychology; *Peer Group; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*ethnology/psychology; Qualitative Research; Residence Characteristics/*classification; *Social Class; *Social Conformity; Social Values/ethnology; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy to fertility among 15 young mothers in three English locations. Data were also collected from nine local health workers. The findings show that, from the mothers' perspective, there was no evidence that peers influenced behaviour. However, the data did suggest that early childbearing might be normative in some communities.  
  Call Number Serial 1343  
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Author (up) Clayton, R.R.; Cattarello, A.M.; Johnstone, B.M. file  url
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  Title The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (project DARE): 5-year follow-up results Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 307-318  
  Keywords Child; Curriculum; Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic; Female; Health Education/*methods; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Kentucky; Male; Models, Statistical; Peer Group; Program Evaluation; Prospective Studies; Regression Analysis; *School Health Services; Substance-Related Disorders/*prevention & control/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: This article reports the results of a 5-year, longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), a school-based primary drug prevention curriculum designed for introduction during the last year of elementary education. DARE is the most widely disseminated school-based prevention curriculum in the United States. METHOD: Twenty-three elementary schools were randomly assigned to receive DARE and 8 were designated comparison schools. Students in the DARE schools received 16 weeks of protocol-driven instruction and students in the comparison schools received a drug education unit as part of the health curriculum. All students were pretested during the 6th grade prior to delivery of the programs, posttested shortly after completion, and resurveyed each subsequent year through the 10th grade. Three-stage mixed effects regression models were used to analyze these data. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between intervention and comparison schools with respect to cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use during the 7th grade, approximately 1 year after completion of the program, or over the full 5-year measurement interval. Significant intervention effects in the hypothesized direction were observed during the 7th grade for measures of students' general and specific attitudes toward drugs, the capability to resist peer pressure, and estimated level of drug use by peers. Over the full measurement interval, however, average trajectories of change for these outcomes were similar in the intervention and comparison conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this 5-year prospective study are largely consonant with the results obtained from prior short-term evaluations of the DARE curriculum, which have reported limited effects of the program upon drug use, greater efficacy with respect to attitudes, social skills, and knowledge, but a general tendency for curriculum effects to decay over time. The results of this study underscore the need for more robust prevention programming targeted specifically at risk factors, the inclusion of booster sessions to sustain positive effects, and greater attention to interrelationships between developmental processes in adolescent substance use, individual level characteristics, and social context.  
  Call Number Serial 1562  
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Author (up) Fergusson, D.M.; Boden, J.M.; Horwood, L.J. file  url
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  Title The developmental antecedents of illicit drug use: evidence from a 25-year longitudinal study Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Drug and Alcohol Dependence Abbreviated Journal Drug Alcohol Depend  
  Volume 96 Issue 1-2 Pages 165-177  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Abuse/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cohort Studies; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/psychology; Humans; Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Models, Statistical; New Zealand/epidemiology; Parents/psychology; Peer Group; Prospective Studies; Psychology, Adolescent/statistics & numerical data; Psychology, Child; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Social Adjustment; Street Drugs/*adverse effects; Substance-Related Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The present study examined the developmental antecedents of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. METHODS: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult illicit drug use and abuse/dependence; cannabis use to age 25; measures of parental adjustment; measures of exposure to childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and interparental violence; novelty-seeking; childhood and early adolescent adjustment and substance use; and affiliation with substance-using peers. RESULTS: Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence from ages 16 to 25 were significantly associated (all p values<.05) with a range of parental adjustment measures; exposure to abuse in childhood; individual factors; and measures of childhood and early adolescent adjustment. Analyses using repeated measures logistic regression models suggested that parental illicit drug use, gender, novelty-seeking, and childhood conduct disorder predicted later illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Further analyses revealed that these pathways to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were mediated via cannabis use, affiliation with substance-using peers, and alcohol use during ages 16-25. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested that the illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were associated with a range of early life circumstances and processes that put individuals at greater risk of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. However, the use of cannabis in late adolescence and early adulthood emerged as the strongest risk factor for later involvement in other illicit drugs.  
  Call Number Serial 1682  
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Author (up) Gardner, R.M.; Stark, K.; Friedman, B.N.; Jackson, N.A. file  url
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  Title Predictors of eating disorder scores in children ages 6 through 14: a longitudinal study Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 199-205  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology; Body Constitution; *Body Image; Child; Child Psychology; Colorado; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology); Depression; Eating Disorders/*diagnosis/*psychology; Family; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Peer Group; Prognosis; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Self Concept; Sex Factors; *Social Desirability  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to identify variables that predict higher eating disorder scores in non-clinical boys and girls ages 6 through 14. Two hundred sixteen children participated and were tested annually for 3 years. A TV-video procedure was used to measure the accuracy of body size judgments. Variables examined included demographic, familial, sociocultural, social, esteem, and clinical variables. Predictors of higher eating disorder scores for both sexes included height and weight, children's perceptions of parental concerns about their body size, low body esteem, and depression. For girls only, a larger perceived body size and smaller idealized body size were also predictors. Teasing was a predictor for boys only. An analysis of longitudinal changes suggests that low body esteem becomes a significant factor around age 9, depression emerges as a predictor at age 10, and body size judgments in perceived and ideal sizes at ages 11 and 12. Changes over 2 years in individuals' weight and height, teasing, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorder scores were also found to predict higher eating disorder scores.  
  Call Number Serial 93  
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Author (up) Joshi, S.V.; Hartley, S.N.; Kessler, M.; Barstead, M. file  url
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  Title School-based suicide prevention: content, process, and the role of trusted adults and peers Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America Abbreviated Journal Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am  
  Volume 24 Issue 2 Pages 353-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Humans; Mental Disorders/*psychology; Peer Group; Preventive Health Services/*methods; Risk-Taking; *School Health Services; Students/*psychology; Suicide/*prevention & control; Child/adolescent; High-risk behaviors; School mental health; School-based suicide prevention; Suicide prevention; Suicide/self-harm; Supporting alliance  
  Abstract Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously.  
  Call Number Serial 2169  
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Author (up) Long, N.; Forehand, R.; Fauber, R.; Brody, G.H. file  url
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  Title Self-perceived and independently observed competence of young adolescents as a function of parental marital conflict and recent divorce Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 15-27  
  Keywords *Achievement; Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology; Child; Cognition; *Divorce; Female; Humans; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Marriage; Mother-Child Relations; Peer Group; Self Concept; Social Desirability  
  Abstract The self-perceived and independently observed cognitive and social competence of young adolescents as a function of parental conflict and recent divorce was investigated. Subjects were 40 young adolescents between the ages of 11 years 1 month and 15 years 1 month. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used, with the independent variables being parental marital status (married vs. recently divorced) and parental conflict (high vs. low). Dependent variables included the following measures of adolescent competence: adolescent-completed measures of self-perceived competence, teacher-completed measures, behavioral observations, and school grades. The results indicated that the level of parental conflict, rather than parental marital status, appears to be the critical variable associated with adolescents' independently observed levels of cognitive and social competence. In regard to adolescents' self-perceived levels of cognitive and social competence, parental marital status was found to be the critical variable. The implications of these findings are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 286  
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Author (up) Mallett, K.A.; Varvil-Weld, L.; Turrisi, R.; Read, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title An examination of college students' willingness to experience consequences as a unique predictor of alcohol problems Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Psychol Addict Behav  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 41-47  
  Keywords Adolescent; Alcohol Drinking/*prevention & control; Alcoholism/*prevention & control; *Attitude; Female; Humans; Male; Peer Group; Questionnaires; *Social Environment; Students; Universities  
  Abstract The focus of the study was to examine (1) the unique variance between willingness to experience specific consequences (e.g., vomit) and reported experience of the consequence after controlling for drinking, and (2) the relationships between consequence specific constructs (attitudes and norms) and willingness to experience specific consequences in the context of a structural equation model. Freshmen students (n = 167) from a large northeastern university were randomly selected to participate. Results indicated willingness to experience consequences accounted for significant variance across consequence outcomes controlling for drinking. Significant relationships were observed between consequence specific constructs (attitudes and norms) and students' willingness to experience consequences. Findings provide empirical support that alcohol-related consequences have multiple determinants and are not only a function of alcohol consumption. Prevention efforts may benefit from a more comprehensive approach that includes both drinking and consequence-specific constructs as targets of change.  
  Call Number Serial 203  
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Author (up) Terry-McElrath, Y.M.; Wakefield, M.A.; Emery, S.; Saffer, H.; Szczypka, G.; O'Malley, P.M.; Johnston, L.D.; Chaloupka, F.J.; Flay, B.R. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title State anti-tobacco advertising and smoking outcomes by gender and race/ethnicity Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Ethnicity & Health Abbreviated Journal Ethn Health  
  Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 339-362  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Child; Continental Population Groups/*statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; Ethnic Groups/*statistics & numerical data; Female; Health Promotion/*methods; Humans; Male; Peer Group; Sex Factors; Smoking/*ethnology/*prevention & control; Television; United States/epidemiology; United States Dept. of Health and Human Services  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: This paper examines overall and gender- and racial/ethnic-specific relationships between exposure to state-sponsored anti-tobacco televised advertising and smoking-related outcomes among US middle and high school students using five years of cross-sectional nationally representative data. DESIGN: Nationally representative 8th, 10th, and 12th grade student sample data for 1999-2003 were merged with commercial ratings data on mean potential audience exposure to network and cable television anti-tobacco advertising across the 74 largest US designated market areas, resulting in a final sample size for analysis of 122,340. Associations between state-sponsored anti-tobacco televised advertising exposure and youth smoking-related beliefs and behaviours were modelled while controlling for relevant individual and environmental factors as well as other televised tobacco-related advertising. RESULTS: Higher potential for exposure to state anti-tobacco advertising within the previous four months was generally associated with decreasing odds of current smoking across groups. In addition, such exposure was related, to varying degrees, with decreased perceptions that most/all friends smoked, stronger five-year intentions not to smoke, and increased perceived harm of smoking. These relationships appeared possibly to be weaker for Asian students. CONCLUSIONS: The results from these analyses indicate that state anti-tobacco advertising significantly relates to beneficial outcomes -- especially regarding current smoking behaviour -- among US youth as a whole.  
  Call Number Serial 378  
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