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Author (up) Bengtsson, S.; Berglund, H.; Gulyas, B.; Cohen, E.; Savic, I. file  url
  Title Brain activation during odor perception in males and females Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Neuroreport Abbreviated Journal Neuroreport  
  Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages 2027-2033  
  Keywords Adult; Amygdala/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Brain/*diagnostic imaging/*physiology; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Observer Variation; *Odorants; Olfactory Pathways/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Perception/*physiology; *Sex Characteristics; Smell/*physiology; Tomography, Emission-Computed  
  Abstract Several studies indicate that women outperform men in olfactory identification tasks. The psychophysical data are more divergent when it comes to gender differences at levels of odor processing which are cognitively less demanding. We therefore compared cerebral activation with H2(15)O PET in 12 females and 11 males during birhinal passive smelling of odors and odorless air. The odorous compounds (odorants) were pure olfactory, or mixed olfactory and weakly trigeminal. Using odorless air as the baseline condition, activations were found bilaterally in the amygdala, piriform and insular cortices in both sexes, irrespective of the odor. No gender difference was detected in the pattern of cerebral activation (random effect analysis SPM99, corrected p < 0.05) or in the subjective perception of odors. Males and females seem to use similar cerebral circuits during the passive perception of odors. The reported female superiority in assessing olfactory information including odor identification is probably an effect of a difference at a cognitive, rather than perceptive level of olfactory processing.  
  Call Number Serial 2000  
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Author (up) Britton, J.C.; Rauch, S.L.; Rosso, I.M.; Killgore, W.D.S.; Price, L.M.; Ragan, J.; Chosak, A.; Hezel, D.M.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E.; Pauls, D.L.; Jenike, M.A.; Stewart, S.E. file  url
  Title Cognitive inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 944-953  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention/physiology; Brain Mapping; Caudate Nucleus/physiopathology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Color Perception/*physiology; Corpus Striatum/physiopathology; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/*physiopathology/psychology; Orientation/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Reference Values; Reversal Learning/*physiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. METHOD: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets.  
  Call Number Serial 2043  
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Author (up) Chapados, C.; Levitin, D.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Cross-modal interactions in the experience of musical performances: physiological correlates Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 108 Issue 3 Pages 639-651  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal/*physiology; Auditory Perception/*physiology; Emotions/*physiology; Female; Galvanic Skin Response/*physiology; Humans; Judgment; *Music; Psychophysiology; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract This experiment was conducted to investigate cross-modal interactions in the emotional experience of music listeners. Previous research showed that visual information present in a musical performance is rich in expressive content, and moderates the subjective emotional experience of a participant listening and/or observing musical stimuli [Vines, B. W., Krumhansl, C. L., Wanderley, M. M., & Levitin, D. J. (2006). Cross-modal interactions in the perception of musical performance. Cognition, 101, 80--113.]. The goal of this follow-up experiment was to replicate this cross-modal interaction by investigating the objective, physiological aspect of emotional response to music measuring electrodermal activity. The scaled average of electrodermal amplitude for visual-auditory presentation was found to be significantly higher than the sum of the reactions when the music was presented in visual only (VO) and auditory only (AO) conditions, suggesting the presence of an emergent property created by bimodal interaction. Functional data analysis revealed that electrodermal activity generally followed the same contour across modalities of presentation, except during rests (silent parts of the performance) when the visual information took on particular salience. Finally, electrodermal activity and subjective tension judgments were found to be most highly correlated in the audio-visual (AV) condition than in the unimodal conditions. The present study provides converging evidence for the importance of seeing musical performances, and preliminary evidence for the utility of electrodermal activity as an objective measure in studies of continuous music-elicited emotions.  
  Call Number Serial 381  
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Author (up) Coutts, A.J.; Rampinini, E.; Marcora, S.M.; Castagna, C.; Impellizzeri, F.M. file  url
  Title Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia Abbreviated Journal J Sci Med Sport  
  Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 79-84  
  Keywords Adult; Exercise/physiology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Lactic Acid/*blood; Linear Models; Muscle Fatigue/physiology; Oxygen Consumption/physiology; Perception/*physiology; Physical Exertion/*physiology; Self-Assessment; Soccer/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) could be a practical measure of global exercise intensity in team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between heart rate (%HR(peak)) and blood lactate ([BLa(-)]) measures of exercise intensity with each player's RPE during soccer-specific aerobic exercises. Mean individual %HR(peak), [BLa(-)] and RPE (Borg's CR 10-scale) were recorded from 20 amateur soccer players from 67 soccer-specific small-sided games training sessions over an entire competitive season. The small-sided games were performed in three 4min bouts separated with 3min recovery on various sized pitches and involved 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-players on each side. A stepwise linear multiple regression was used to determine a predictive equation to estimate global RPE for small-sided games from [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak). Partial correlation coefficients were also calculated to assess the relationship between RPE, [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 43.1% of the adjusted variance in RPE could be explained by HR alone. The addition of [BLa(-)] data to the prediction equation allowed for 57.8% of the adjusted variance in RPE to be predicted (Y=-9.49-0.152 %HR(peak)+1.82 [BLa(-)], p<0.001). These results show that the combination of [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak) measures during small-sided games is better related to RPE than either %HR(peak) or [BLa(-)] measures alone. These results provide further support the use of RPE as a measure of global exercise intensity in soccer.  
  Call Number Serial 523  
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Author (up) D'Hooge, R.; De Deyn, P.P. file  url
  Title Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Brain Res Rev  
  Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 60-90  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Brain/cytology/*physiology; Denervation/adverse effects; Disease Models, Animal; Maze Learning/*physiology; Memory/*physiology; Mice; Nerve Net/cytology/*physiology; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism; Rats; Rodentia/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Space Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract The Morris water maze (MWM) was described 20 years ago as a device to investigate spatial learning and memory in laboratory rats. In the meanwhile, it has become one of the most frequently used laboratory tools in behavioral neuroscience. Many methodological variations of the MWM task have been and are being used by research groups in many different applications. However, researchers have become increasingly aware that MWM performance is influenced by factors such as apparatus or training procedure as well as by the characteristics of the experimental animals (sex, species/strain, age, nutritional state, exposure to stress or infection). Lesions in distinct brain regions like hippocampus, striatum, basal forebrain, cerebellum and cerebral cortex were shown to impair MWM performance, but disconnecting rather than destroying brain regions relevant for spatial learning may impair MWM performance as well. Spatial learning in general and MWM performance in particular appear to depend upon the coordinated action of different brain regions and neurotransmitter systems constituting a functionally integrated neural network. Finally, the MWM task has often been used in the validation of rodent models for neurocognitive disorders and the evaluation of possible neurocognitive treatments. Through its many applications, MWM testing gained a position at the very core of contemporary neuroscience research.  
  Call Number Serial 1556  
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Author (up) Elmore, L.C.; Ma, W.J.; Magnotti, J.F.; Leising, K.J.; Passaro, A.D.; Katz, J.S.; Wright, A.A. file  url
  Title Visual short-term memory compared in rhesus monkeys and humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 21 Issue 11 Pages 975-979  
  Keywords Animals; Humans; Macaca mulatta/physiology/*psychology; *Memory, Short-Term; Psychophysics; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract Change detection is a popular task to study visual short-term memory (STM) in humans [1-4]. Much of this work suggests that STM has a fixed capacity of 4 +/- 1 items [1-6]. Here we report the first comparison of change-detection memory between humans and a species closely related to humans, the rhesus monkey. Monkeys and humans were tested in nearly identical procedures with overlapping display sizes. Although the monkeys' STM was well fit by a one-item fixed-capacity memory model, other monkey memory tests with four-item lists have shown performance impossible to obtain with a one-item capacity [7]. We suggest that this contradiction can be resolved using a continuous-resource approach more closely tied to the neural basis of memory [8, 9]. In this view, items have a noisy memory representation whose noise level depends on display size as a result of the distributed allocation of a continuous resource. In accord with this theory, we show that performance depends on the perceptual distance between items before and after the change, and d' depends on display size in an approximately power-law fashion. Our results open the door to combining the power of psychophysics, computation, and physiology to better understand the neural basis of STM.  
  Call Number Serial 127  
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Author (up) Grzybowski, S.J.; Wyczesany, M.; Kaiser, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The influence of context on the processing of emotional and neutral adjectives--an ERP study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Biological Psychology Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychol  
  Volume 99 Issue Pages 137-149  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Arousal; Brain Mapping; Electroencephalography; Emotions/*physiology; Evoked Potentials, Visual/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Photic Stimulation; Principal Component Analysis; Visual Perception/*physiology; Young Adult; Lpp; Lateralization; N400; Negativity bias; P1; P2; P3; Positivity offset; Right hemisphere; Word processing  
  Abstract The study investigated brain responses to emotional and neutral adjectives within contexts of varying emotional valence. Participants were randomly assigned to 3 context groups where they viewed random sequences of emotional and neutral adjectives intermixed with: emotional pictures (emotional context), neutral pictures (neutral context) and blank screens (zero context). Within the emotional context group the P3 potential was more pronounced in response to positive than either negative or neutral adjectives, and positive picture context impacted positive and negative adjectives differently. In the neutral context group the P2 and P3 potentials were greater in response to the positive adjectives as compared to the neutral ones. There was also a greater negativity of the N400 potential in response to the neutral adjectives. Within the zero context group only the N400 effect was visible. The seeming preference for positive words can be explained in terms of the specific positivity offset phenomenon.  
  Call Number Serial 1094  
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Author (up) Heekeren, H.R.; Marrett, S.; Bandettini, P.A.; Ungerleider, L.G. file  url
  Title A general mechanism for perceptual decision-making in the human brain Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 431 Issue 7010 Pages 859-862  
  Keywords Animals; Attention/physiology; Brain/cytology/*physiology; Decision Making/*physiology; Face; Female; Haplorhini/physiology; Housing; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; *Models, Neurological; Pattern Recognition, Visual/physiology; Photic Stimulation; Prefrontal Cortex/cytology/physiology; Visual Perception/*physiology  
  Abstract Findings from single-cell recording studies suggest that a comparison of the outputs of different pools of selectively tuned lower-level sensory neurons may be a general mechanism by which higher-level brain regions compute perceptual decisions. For example, when monkeys must decide whether a noisy field of dots is moving upward or downward, a decision can be formed by computing the difference in responses between lower-level neurons sensitive to upward motion and those sensitive to downward motion. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging and a categorization task in which subjects decide whether an image presented is a face or a house to test whether a similar mechanism is also at work for more complex decisions in the human brain and, if so, where in the brain this computation might be performed. Activity within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is greater during easy decisions than during difficult decisions, covaries with the difference signal between face- and house-selective regions in the ventral temporal cortex, and predicts behavioural performance in the categorization task. These findings show that even for complex object categories, the comparison of the outputs of different pools of selectively tuned neurons could be a general mechanism by which the human brain computes perceptual decisions.  
  Call Number Serial 1353  
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Author (up) Holle, H.; Obleser, J.; Rueschemeyer, S.-A.; Gunter, T.C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Integration of iconic gestures and speech in left superior temporal areas boosts speech comprehension under adverse listening conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 49 Issue 1 Pages 875-884  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Brain Mapping; Comprehension/*physiology; Environment; Female; Functional Laterality/physiology; *Gestures; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Photic Stimulation; Speech/*physiology; Speech Perception/*physiology; Temporal Lobe/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Iconic gestures are spontaneous hand movements that illustrate certain contents of speech and, as such, are an important part of face-to-face communication. This experiment targets the brain bases of how iconic gestures and speech are integrated during comprehension. Areas of integration were identified on the basis of two classic properties of multimodal integration, bimodal enhancement and inverse effectiveness (i.e., greater enhancement for unimodally least effective stimuli). Participants underwent fMRI while being presented with videos of gesture-supported sentences as well as their unimodal components, which allowed us to identify areas showing bimodal enhancement. Additionally, we manipulated the signal-to-noise ratio of speech (either moderate or good) to probe for integration areas exhibiting the inverse effectiveness property. Bimodal enhancement was found at the posterior end of the superior temporal sulcus and adjacent superior temporal gyrus (pSTS/STG) in both hemispheres, indicating that the integration of iconic gestures and speech takes place in these areas. Furthermore, we found that the left pSTS/STG specifically showed a pattern of inverse effectiveness, i.e., the neural enhancement for bimodal stimulation was greater under adverse listening conditions. This indicates that activity in this area is boosted when an iconic gesture accompanies an utterance that is otherwise difficult to comprehend. The neural response paralleled the behavioral data observed. The present data extends results from previous gesture-speech integration studies in showing that pSTS/STG plays a key role in the facilitation of speech comprehension through simultaneous gestural input.  
  Call Number Serial 502  
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Author (up) Jacola, L.M.; Byars, A.W.; Hickey, F.; Vannest, J.; Holland, S.K.; Schapiro, M.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Functional magnetic resonance imaging of story listening in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: evidence for atypical neurodevelopment Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Intellectual Disability Research : JIDR Abbreviated Journal J Intellect Disabil Res  
  Volume 58 Issue 10 Pages 892-902  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/*physiopathology; Down Syndrome/*physiopathology; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Speech Perception/*physiology; Young Adult; Down syndrome; functional magnetic resonance imaging; intellectual disability; receptive language  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous studies have documented differences in neural activation during language processing in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in comparison with typically developing individuals matched for chronological age. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare activation during language processing in young adults with DS to typically developing comparison groups matched for chronological age or mental age. We hypothesised that the pattern of neural activation in the DS cohort would differ when compared with both typically developing cohorts. METHOD: Eleven persons with DS (mean chronological age = 18.3; developmental age range = 4-6 years) and two groups of typically developing individuals matched for chronological (n = 13; mean age = 18.3 years) and developmental (mental) age (n = 12; chronological age range = 4-6 years) completed fMRI scanning during a passive story listening paradigm. Random effects group comparisons were conducted on individual maps of the contrast between activation (story listening) and rest (tone presentation) conditions. RESULTS: Robust activation was seen in typically developing groups in regions associated with processing auditory information, including bilateral superior and middle temporal lobe gyri. In contrast, the DS cohort demonstrated atypical spatial distribution of activation in midline frontal and posterior cingulate regions when compared with both typically developing control groups. Random effects group analyses documented reduced magnitude of activation in the DS cohort when compared with both control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Activation in the DS group differed significantly in magnitude and spatial extent when compared with chronological and mental age-matched typically developing control groups during a story listening task. Results provide additional support for an atypical pattern of functional organisation for language processing in this population.  
  Call Number Serial 1089  
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