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Author Haslbeck, M.; Franzmann, T.; Weinfurtner, D.; Buchner, J. file  url
Title Some like it hot: the structure and function of small heat-shock proteins Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Nature Structural & Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Struct Mol Biol  
Volume 12 Issue 10 Pages 842-846  
Keywords Heat-Shock Proteins, Small/*chemistry/classification/*metabolism; Phylogeny; Protein Conformation; Protein Folding  
Abstract Small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) are a widespread and diverse class of molecular chaperones. Recent evidence suggests that they maintain protein homeostasis by binding proteins in non-native conformations, thereby preventing substrate aggregation. Some members of the sHsp family are inactive or only partially active under physiological conditions, and transition toward the active state is induced by specific triggers, such as elevated temperature. Release of substrate proteins bound to sHsps requires cooperation with ATP-dependent chaperones, suggesting that sHsps create a reservoir of non-native proteins for subsequent refolding.  
Call Number Serial 2181  
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Author Gajer, P.; Brotman, R.M.; Bai, G.; Sakamoto, J.; Schutte, U.M.E.; Zhong, X.; Koenig, S.S.K.; Fu, L.; Ma, Z.S.; Zhou, X.; Abdo, Z.; Forney, L.J.; Ravel, J. file  url
Title Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Science Translational Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sci Transl Med  
Volume 4 Issue 132 Pages 132ra52  
Keywords Bacteria/classification/genetics; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Metabolome; Metabolomics; Metagenome/genetics/*physiology; Models, Biological; Phylogeny; Time Factors; Vagina/*microbiology; Microbiome  
Abstract Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis.  
Call Number Serial 2175  
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Author Chen, C.-H.; Tu, C.-C.; Kuo, H.-Y.; Zeng, R.-F.; Yu, C.-S.; Lu, H.H.-S.; Liou, M.-L. file  url
Title Dynamic change of surface microbiota with different environmental cleaning methods between two wards in a hospital Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Appl Microbiol Biotechnol  
Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 771-781  
Keywords Bacteria/*classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Cluster Analysis; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry/genetics; Disinfection/*methods; *Environmental Microbiology; *Hospitals; Housekeeping, Hospital/*methods; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Metagenomics; Phylogeny; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Taiwan; 16S rRNA metagenomics; Acinetobacter; Environmental cleaning methods; Healthcare-associated infection; Medical intensive care unit; Respiratory care centre  
Abstract Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics. A total of 36 samples, including 9 samples per sampling time, from each ward were analysed. The clinical isolates were recorded during the sampling time. A large amount of microbial diversity was detected, and human skin microbiota (HSM) was predominant in both wards. In addition, the colonization rate of the HSM in the MICU was higher than that in the RCC, especially for Moraxellaceae. A higher alpha-diversity (p = 0.005519) and a lower UniFrac distance was shown in the RCC due to the lack of daily cleaning. Moreover, a significantly higher abundance among Acinetobacter sp., Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was shown in the RCC compared to the MICU using the paired t test. We concluded that cleaning changes might contribute to the difference in diversity between two wards.  
Call Number Serial 2098  
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Author Xu, P.; Lu, B.; Xiao, H.; Fu, X.; Murphy, R.W.; Wu, K. file  url
Title The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
Volume 8 Issue 10 Pages e78140  
Keywords Animals; *Evolution, Molecular; Moths/classification/*genetics; Opsins/classification/*genetics; Phylogeny; RNA, Messenger/genetics  
Abstract Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.  
Call Number Serial 2065  
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Author Smith, A.R.; D'Annunzio, L.; Smith, A.E.; Sharma, A.; Hofmann, C.M.; Marshall, N.J.; Carleton, K.L. file  url
Title Intraspecific cone opsin expression variation in the cichlids of Lake Malawi Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Molecular Ecology Abbreviated Journal Mol Ecol  
Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 299-310  
Keywords Africa; Animals; Cichlids/*genetics/physiology; Color Vision; Cone Opsins/*genetics; Evolution, Molecular; Fresh Water; *Gene Expression; Genetic Variation; Light; Phylogeny; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells/*metabolism; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Species Specificity; Visual Acuity/*genetics  
Abstract The expression of cone opsin genes is a primary determinant of the characteristics of colour vision. Interspecific variation in opsin expression is common in African cichlids. It is correlated with foraging among cichlids from Lake Malawi, and with ambient light environment among cichlids from Lake Victoria. In this study, we tested whether gene expression varied within species such that it might be important in contributing to divergence. We hypothesized that light attenuation with depth would be correlated with predictable changes in gene expression in Lake Malawi, and that this variation would tune visual sensitivities to match the ambient light environment. We observed significant differences in cone opsin expression in three different comparisons among populations of the same species. Higher LWS expression was found in shallow versus deep Copadichromis eucinostomus. In Metriaclima zebra, individuals from Zimbawe Rock expressed significantly more SWS2B than those from Thumbi West Island, although these locales have similar ambient light environments. Finally, Tropheops gracilior from deeper water had significantly more variation in expression than their shallow counterparts. These results support that gene expression varies significantly between populations of the same species. Surprisingly, these results could not be explained by predicted visual performance as models predicted that differential expression patterns did not confer sensitivity advantages at different depths. This suggested that expression variation did not confer a local sensitivity advantage. Therefore, our findings were contrary to a primary requirement of the sensory bias hypothesis. As such, other explanations for intraspecific gene expression variation need to be tested.  
Call Number Serial 2063  
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