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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
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Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Matheson, F.I.; LaFreniere, M.C.; White, H.L.; Moineddin, R.; Dunn, J.R.; Glazier, R.H. file  url
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Title Influence of neighborhood deprivation, gender and ethno-racial origin on smoking behavior of Canadian youth Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med  
Volume 52 Issue 5 Pages 376-380  
Keywords Adolescent; Canada/epidemiology; Censuses; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; *Poverty Areas; Sex Factors; Smoking/*epidemiology/*ethnology  
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deprived neighborhoods play an important role in adult smoking behavior, but little research exists about youth on this topic. This study explored the relationship between deprivation and youth smoking to examine whether this association differs by gender and ethno-racial origin. METHODS: Individual-level data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2000-2005) were combined with neighborhood-level data from the 2001 Canada Census to assess smoking among youth aged 12-18 (n = 15,615). RESULTS: Youth who were female (OR = 1.27, 95%CI:1.16-1.38), White (OR = 1.95, 95%CI:1.71-2.21) and living in deprived neighborhoods (OR = 1.22, 95%CI:1.16-1.28) were more likely to smoke. In multilevel models, White females were more likely to smoke relative to non-White females and males (OR = 1.42, 95%CI:1.06-1.89). Youth with a strong sense of community belonging and living in deprived neighborhoods were at increased risk of smoking (OR = 1.18, 95%CI:1.06-1.32). The individual-level risk factor, household smoker, contributed substantially to youth smoking reducing the bivariate association between material deprivation and smoking by 33%. CONCLUSION: White females, youth cohabiting with other smokers and youth living in poor neighborhoods with a strong sense of community belonging, are at an increased risk of smoking. Future anti-smoking efforts might have greater impact if they target at-risk youth as well as household members who cohabit with youth.  
Call Number Serial 374  
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