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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
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  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Clayton, R.R.; Cattarello, A.M.; Johnstone, B.M. file  url
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  Title The effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (project DARE): 5-year follow-up results Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Prev Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 3 Pages 307-318  
  Keywords Child; Curriculum; Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic; Female; Health Education/*methods; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Kentucky; Male; Models, Statistical; Peer Group; Program Evaluation; Prospective Studies; Regression Analysis; *School Health Services; Substance-Related Disorders/*prevention & control/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: This article reports the results of a 5-year, longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), a school-based primary drug prevention curriculum designed for introduction during the last year of elementary education. DARE is the most widely disseminated school-based prevention curriculum in the United States. METHOD: Twenty-three elementary schools were randomly assigned to receive DARE and 8 were designated comparison schools. Students in the DARE schools received 16 weeks of protocol-driven instruction and students in the comparison schools received a drug education unit as part of the health curriculum. All students were pretested during the 6th grade prior to delivery of the programs, posttested shortly after completion, and resurveyed each subsequent year through the 10th grade. Three-stage mixed effects regression models were used to analyze these data. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between intervention and comparison schools with respect to cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use during the 7th grade, approximately 1 year after completion of the program, or over the full 5-year measurement interval. Significant intervention effects in the hypothesized direction were observed during the 7th grade for measures of students' general and specific attitudes toward drugs, the capability to resist peer pressure, and estimated level of drug use by peers. Over the full measurement interval, however, average trajectories of change for these outcomes were similar in the intervention and comparison conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this 5-year prospective study are largely consonant with the results obtained from prior short-term evaluations of the DARE curriculum, which have reported limited effects of the program upon drug use, greater efficacy with respect to attitudes, social skills, and knowledge, but a general tendency for curriculum effects to decay over time. The results of this study underscore the need for more robust prevention programming targeted specifically at risk factors, the inclusion of booster sessions to sustain positive effects, and greater attention to interrelationships between developmental processes in adolescent substance use, individual level characteristics, and social context.  
  Call Number Serial 1562  
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Author (up) Kalucy, R.; Thomas, L.; Lia, B.; Slattery, T.; Norris, D. file  url
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  Title Managing increased demand for mental health services in a public hospital emergency department: a trial of 'Hospital-in-the-Home' for mental health consumers Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication International Journal of Mental Health Nursing Abbreviated Journal Int J Ment Health Nurs  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 275-281  
  Keywords Adult; Crisis Intervention/*organization & administration; Emergency Service, Hospital/utilization; Emergency Services, Psychiatric/*organization & administration/utilization; Female; Health Services Needs and Demand/trends; Health Services Research; Home Care Services, Hospital-Based/*organization & administration/utilization; Humans; Male; Pilot Projects; Program Evaluation; South Australia  
  Abstract Increasing demand from mental health consumers for crisis assessment and intervention in public Emergency Departments (ED) has placed considerable strain on the resources of the ED and long delays awaiting admission are experienced. At Flinders Medical Centre in South Australia, the Psychiatry Department trialled a 'hospital-in-the-home' service to relieve the pressure on the ED and enhance inpatient capacity. The trial has been successful in diverting mental health consumers directly to intensive home-based services from the ED and freeing up beds in the inpatient unit. Evaluation showed that both consumers and their carers were highly satisfied with the hospital-at-home service.  
  Call Number Serial 937  
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Author (up) Kelder, S.H.; Perry, C.L.; Lytle, L.A.; Klepp, K.I. file  url
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  Title Community-wide youth nutrition education: long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Health Education Research Abbreviated Journal Health Educ Res  
  Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 119-131  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology/*prevention & control; Child; Cohort Studies; Curriculum; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Food Habits; *Health Education; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Male; Minnesota; North Dakota; Nutritional Sciences/*education; Program Evaluation; Risk Factors; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract The Class of 1989 was part of the Minnesota Heart Health Program, a research and demonstration project designed to reduce cardiovascular disease in three intervention communities. This paper describes the long-term outcomes of a school- and community-based intervention on healthy eating behaviors in one intervention and matched reference community. Beginning in the sixth grade (1983), seven annual waves of behavioral measurements were taken from both communities (baseline N = 2376). Self-reported data were collected at each time period including measures of knowledge and preferences for certain foods, and food salting behavior. Data were analyzed using an ANCOVA model adjusting for baseline dependent variable differences, with the school as the unit of analysis. Knowledge, healthy food choices and restraint in food salting behavior variables were significantly higher throughout most of the follow-up period in the intervention community for females. Males also indicated greater knowledge of healthier choices in the intervention community and greater restraint in salting behavior but results are less conclusive for healthy food choices. These results suggest that multiple intervention components such as behavioral education in schools coupled with community-wide health promotion strategies can produce modest but lasting improvement in adolescent knowledge and choices of heart healthy foods and less frequent food salting practices, and that this improvement is most notable among females.  
  Call Number Serial 1596  
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Author (up) Kohler, P.K.; Manhart, L.E.; Lafferty, W.E. file  url
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  Title Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health  
  Volume 42 Issue 4 Pages 344-351  
  Keywords Adolescent; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Program Evaluation; Risk Reduction Behavior; Sex Education/*methods; *Sexual Abstinence; *Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data; Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology/prevention & control; United States/epidemiology  
  Abstract PURPOSE: The role that sex education plays in the initiation of sexual activity and risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) is controversial in the United States. Despite several systematic reviews, few epidemiologic evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs on a population level have been conducted. METHODS: Among never-married heterosexual adolescents, aged 15-19 years, who participated in Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth and reported on formal sex education received before their first sexual intercourse (n = 1719), we compared the sexual health risks of adolescents who received abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education to those of adolescents who received no formal sex education. Weighted multivariate logistic regression generated population-based estimates. RESULTS: Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to report teen pregnancy (OR(adj) = .4, 95% CI = .22- .69, p = .001) than those who received no formal sex education, whereas there was no significant effect of abstinence-only education (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .38-1.45, p = .38). Abstinence-only education did not reduce the likelihood of engaging in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .8, 95% CI = .51-1.31, p = .40), but comprehensive sex education was marginally associated with a lower likelihood of reporting having engaged in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .49-1.02, p = .06). Neither abstinence-only nor comprehensive sex education significantly reduced the likelihood of reported STD diagnoses (OR(adj) = 1.7, 95% CI = .57-34.76, p = .36 and OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = .67-5.00, p = .24 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Teaching about contraception was not associated with increased risk of adolescent sexual activity or STD. Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education had a lower risk of pregnancy than adolescents who received abstinence-only or no sex education.  
  Call Number Serial 1685  
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