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Author (up) Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 1-21  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.  
  Call Number Serial 235  
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Author (up) Avery, D.H.; Wildschiodtz, G.; Smallwood, R.G.; Martin, D.; Rafaelsen, O.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title REM latency and core temperature relationships in primary depression Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Psychiatr Scand  
  Volume 74 Issue 3 Pages 269-280  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aging/physiology; Bipolar Disorder/*physiopathology; *Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm; Depressive Disorder/*physiopathology; Female; Humans; Male; Menopause; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology; Sleep, REM/*physiology  
  Abstract REM latency and rectal and ear canal temperature were studied simultaneously in 11 controls and nine depressed patients; seven of the patients were studied when recovered. REM latency was shorter in the depressed group compared with controls and lengthened with recovery. The nocturnal and ear canal temperatures were higher in the depressed group compared with controls and decreased with recovery. REM latency and the nocturnal rectal temperature were negatively correlated when all the nights of the depressed patients were analyzed (r = -0.44) and when all the nights of the subjects were analyzed (r = -0.44). REM latency and nocturnal ear canal temperatures were negatively correlated when all the nights of the control group were analyzed (r = -0.34). The timing of the temperature rhythm did not appear to be correlated with the REM latency.  
  Call Number Serial 1148  
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Author (up) Britton, J.C.; Rauch, S.L.; Rosso, I.M.; Killgore, W.D.S.; Price, L.M.; Ragan, J.; Chosak, A.; Hezel, D.M.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E.; Pauls, D.L.; Jenike, M.A.; Stewart, S.E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Cognitive inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 944-953  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention/physiology; Brain Mapping; Caudate Nucleus/physiopathology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Color Perception/*physiology; Corpus Striatum/physiopathology; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/*physiopathology/psychology; Orientation/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Reference Values; Reversal Learning/*physiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. METHOD: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets.  
  Call Number Serial 2043  
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Author (up) Gisquet-Verrier, P.; Delatour, B. file  url
openurl 
  Title The role of the rat prelimbic/infralimbic cortex in working memory: not involved in the short-term maintenance but in monitoring and processing functions Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 141 Issue 2 Pages 585-596  
  Keywords Animals; Attention/physiology; Behavior, Animal; Discrimination Learning/*physiology; Limbic System/injuries/*physiology; Male; Maze Learning/physiology; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Reaction Time/physiology; Retention (Psychology)/*physiology; Space Perception/physiology; Spatial Behavior/physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract Contrary to human and primate, working memory in the rodent is usually considered as a simple short term memory buffer and mainly investigated using delayed response paradigms. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of the rat prelimbic/infralimbic cortex in different spatial delayed tasks in order to dissociate its involvement in temporary storage from other information processes, such as behavioral flexibility and attention. In experiment 1 rats were trained in a standard elimination win-shift task in a radial-arm maze after which a 1-min delay was inserted mid trial. Prelimbic/infralimbic lesions induced only a transient disruption of performance following introduction of the delay. In experiment 2, rats were trained directly in a win-shift task with a 5-min delay that was subsequently extended to 30 min. Prelimbic/infralimbic lesions did not significantly affect behavior. Nevertheless, transient disruptions of performance (correlated with lesion extent) were noted repeatedly in lesioned rats when sets of interfering events were presented. The present findings indicate that prelimbic/infralimbic cortex is not directly involved in the short term maintenance of specific information but is implicated when changes, such as sudden introduction of a delay or exposure to unexpected interfering events, alter the initial situation. It appears that working memory in rodents should be considered, as in humans and primates, to encompass both storage and monitoring functions. The present results along with previous ones strongly suggest that prelimbic/infralimbic cortex is not involved in the temporary on-line storage but rather in the control of information required to prospectively organize the ongoing action.  
  Call Number Serial 1043  
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Author (up) Kesner, R.P.; Gilbert, P.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The role of the agranular insular cortex in anticipation of reward contrast Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Abbreviated Journal Neurobiol Learn Mem  
  Volume 88 Issue 1 Pages 82-86  
  Keywords Animals; Association Learning/*physiology; Cerebral Cortex/cytology/*physiology; Male; Neurons/classification/physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Rats; Rats, Long-Evans; Reaction Time/physiology; *Reward; *Set (Psychology)  
  Abstract Sixteen male Long-Evans rats were tested on a modified version of Flaherty et al.'s [Flaherty, C. F., Turovsky, J., & Krauss, K. L. (1994). Relative hedonic value modulates anticipatory contrast. Physiology and Behavior, 55, 1047-1054.] anticipatory contrast paradigm to assess memory for the anticipation of reward. Prior to testing each rat received either a control or quinolinic acid induced lesion of the agranular insular cortex. In the home cage, each rat was allowed to drink a water solution containing 2% sucrose for 3 min followed by a water solution containing 32% sucrose for 3 min. Across 10 days of testing, the control rats showed significantly increased anticipatory discriminability as a function of days. In contrast, rats with agranular insular cortex lesions failed to show anticipatory discriminability. The results of a preference task revealed that both groups could perceptually discriminate between a 2% and a 32% sucrose solution. The data suggest that the agranular insular cortex may be involved in the anticipation of reward.  
  Call Number Serial 1072  
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Author (up) Kesner, R.P.; Gilbert, P.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The role of the agranular insular cortex in anticipation of reward contrast Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Abbreviated Journal Neurobiol Learn Mem  
  Volume 88 Issue 1 Pages 82-86  
  Keywords Animals; Association Learning/*physiology; Cerebral Cortex/cytology/*physiology; Male; Neurons/classification/physiology; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Rats; Rats, Long-Evans; Reaction Time/physiology; *Reward; *Set (Psychology)  
  Abstract Sixteen male Long-Evans rats were tested on a modified version of Flaherty et al.'s [Flaherty, C. F., Turovsky, J., & Krauss, K. L. (1994). Relative hedonic value modulates anticipatory contrast. Physiology and Behavior, 55, 1047-1054.] anticipatory contrast paradigm to assess memory for the anticipation of reward. Prior to testing each rat received either a control or quinolinic acid induced lesion of the agranular insular cortex. In the home cage, each rat was allowed to drink a water solution containing 2% sucrose for 3 min followed by a water solution containing 32% sucrose for 3 min. Across 10 days of testing, the control rats showed significantly increased anticipatory discriminability as a function of days. In contrast, rats with agranular insular cortex lesions failed to show anticipatory discriminability. The results of a preference task revealed that both groups could perceptually discriminate between a 2% and a 32% sucrose solution. The data suggest that the agranular insular cortex may be involved in the anticipation of reward.  
  Call Number Serial 1088  
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Author (up) Liu, C.; Tardif, T.; Mai, X.; Gehring, W.J.; Simms, N.; Luo, Y.-J. file  url
openurl 
  Title What's in a name? Brain activity reveals categorization processes differ across languages Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Human Brain Mapping Abbreviated Journal Hum Brain Mapp  
  Volume 31 Issue 11 Pages 1786-1801  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology; Concept Formation/*physiology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Photic Stimulation; Reaction Time/physiology; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract The linguistic relativity hypothesis proposes that speakers of different languages perceive and conceptualize the world differently, but do their brains reflect these differences? In English, most nouns do not provide linguistic clues to their categories, whereas most Mandarin Chinese nouns provide explicit category information, either morphologically (e.g., the morpheme “vehicle” che1 in the noun “train” huo3che1) or orthographically (e.g., the radical “bug” chong2 in the character for the noun “butterfly” hu2die2). When asked to judge the membership of atypical (e.g., train) vs. typical (e.g., car) pictorial exemplars of a category (e.g., vehicle), English speakers (N = 26) showed larger N300 and N400 event-related potential (ERP) component differences, whereas Mandarin speakers (N = 27) showed no such differences. Further investigation with Mandarin speakers only (N = 22) found that it was the morphologically transparent items that did not show a typicality effect, whereas orthographically transparent items elicited moderate N300 and N400 effects. In a follow-up study with English speakers only (N = 25), morphologically transparent items also showed different patterns of N300 and N400 activation than nontransparent items even for English speakers. Together, these results demonstrate that even for pictorial stimuli, how and whether category information is embedded in object names affects the extent to which typicality is used in category judgments, as shown in N300 and N400 responses.  
  Call Number Serial 1678  
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Author (up) Peretz, I.; Brattico, E.; Tervaniemi, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Abnormal electrical brain responses to pitch in congenital amusia Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Annals of Neurology Abbreviated Journal Ann Neurol  
  Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 478-482  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation/methods; Brain/pathology/*physiopathology; Brain Mapping; Case-Control Studies; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Evoked Potentials, Auditory/*physiology; Female; Humans; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods; Male; Middle Aged; *Music; Perceptual Disorders/*physiopathology; Pitch Discrimination/*physiology; Pitch Perception/*physiology; Reaction Time/physiology  
  Abstract Congenital amusia is a lifelong disability that prevents afflicted individuals from enjoying music as ordinary people do. The deficit is limited to music and cannot be explained by prior brain lesion, hearing loss, or any cognitive or socio-affective disturbance. Recent behavioral results suggest that this disorder is critically dependent on fine-grained pitch discrimination. Here, we present novel electrophysiological evidence that this disorder can be traced down to a right-lateralized N2-P3 response elicited by pitch changes. This abnormal brain response begins as early as 200 milliseconds after tone onset and may serve as a marker of an anomaly in music acquisition.  
  Call Number Serial 335  
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Author (up) Puumala, T.; Sirvio, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Changes in activities of dopamine and serotonin systems in the frontal cortex underlie poor choice accuracy and impulsivity of rats in an attention task Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 83 Issue 2 Pages 489-499  
  Keywords Animals; Attention/*physiology; Brain Chemistry/physiology; Dopamine/*metabolism; Functional Laterality/physiology; Homovanillic Acid/metabolism; Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/metabolism; Impulsive Behavior/*metabolism; Male; Norepinephrine/metabolism; Prefrontal Cortex/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Reaction Time/physiology; Serotonin/*metabolism  
  Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether differences in the function of monoaminergic systems could account for the variability in attention and impulsive behaviour between rats tested in the five-choice serial reaction time task in a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ability of a rat to sustain its attention in this task can be assessed by measuring choice accuracy (percent correct responses) to visual stimuli, whereas the percentage of premature responses indicates the level of impulsivity. Following training with the five-choice serial reaction time task, rats were decapitated and brain pieces taken for neurochemical determination. Levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, the dopamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid and the 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were determined in the frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum and hippocampus. Multivariate regression analysis with a stepwise method revealed that the indeces of utilization of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine) in the left frontal cortex and dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine) in the right frontal cortex together accounted for 49% of the variability in attentional performance between subjects. According to the regression analysis, a negative correlation existed between the left frontal cortex 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine and choice accuracy, and a positive correlation was observed between 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio and choice accuracy on the opposite hemisphere. Additionally, right frontal cortex serotonin utilization was found to correlate positively with the proportion of premature hole responses and this relation accounted for about 24% of the variability in this index of impulsivity between animals. These data indicate that frontal cortex dopamine and serotonin play an important role in the modulation of attention and response control.  
  Call Number Serial 391  
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Author (up) Ross, R.S.; Sherrill, K.R.; Stern, C.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The hippocampus is functionally connected to the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex during context dependent decision making Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Brain Res  
  Volume 1423 Issue Pages 53-66  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Brain Mapping; Corpus Striatum/blood supply/*physiology; Decision Making/*physiology; Face; Female; Functional Laterality; Hippocampus/blood supply/*physiology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Neural Pathways/blood supply/*physiology; Oxygen/blood; Pattern Recognition, Visual/physiology; Photic Stimulation/methods; Prefrontal Cortex/blood supply/*physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Statistics as Topic; Young Adult  
  Abstract Many of our everyday actions are only appropriate in certain situations and selecting the appropriate behavior requires that we use current context and previous experience to guide our decisions. The current study examined hippocampal functional connectivity with prefrontal and striatal regions during a task that required participants to make decisions based on the contextual retrieval of overlapping sequential representations. Participants learned four sequences comprised of six faces each. An overlapping condition was created by having two sequences with two identical faces as the middle images. A non-overlapping condition contained two sequences that did not share any faces between them. Hippocampal functional connectivity was assessed during the presentation period and at the critical choice, where participants had to make a contextually dependent decision. The left hippocampus showed significantly increased functional connectivity with dorsal and ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex during the presentation period of the overlapping compared to the non-overlapping condition after participants knew the sequences. At the critical choice point of the overlapping condition, the left hippocampus showed stronger functional connectivity with the orbitofrontal cortex. These functional connectivity results suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in decision making by predicting the possibilities of what might come next, allowing orbitofrontal and striatal regions to evaluate the expected choice options in order to make the correct action at the choice point.  
  Call Number Serial 152  
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