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Author (up) Britton, J.C.; Rauch, S.L.; Rosso, I.M.; Killgore, W.D.S.; Price, L.M.; Ragan, J.; Chosak, A.; Hezel, D.M.; Pine, D.S.; Leibenluft, E.; Pauls, D.L.; Jenike, M.A.; Stewart, S.E. file  url
  Title Cognitive inflexibility and frontal-cortical activation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 944-953  
  Keywords Adolescent; Attention/physiology; Brain Mapping; Caudate Nucleus/physiopathology; Child; Cognition/*physiology; Color Perception/*physiology; Corpus Striatum/physiopathology; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology; Humans; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/*physiopathology/psychology; Orientation/physiology; Pattern Recognition, Visual/*physiology; Psychomotor Performance/physiology; Reaction Time/physiology; Reference Values; Reversal Learning/*physiology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive flexibility and response inhibition have been linked to perturbations in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although similar cognitive deficits have been identified in pediatric OCD, few neuroimaging studies have been conducted to examine its neural correlates in the developing brain. In this study, we tested hypotheses regarding group differences in the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in a pediatric OCD and a healthy comparison (HC) sample. METHOD: In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a pediatric sample of 10- to 17-year-old subjects, 15 with OCD and 20 HC, completed a set-shifting task. The task, requiring an extradimensional shift to identify a target, examines cognitive flexibility. Within each block, the dimension (color or shape) that identified the target either alternated (i.e., mixed) or remained unchanged (i.e., repeated). RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the OCD group tended to be slower to respond to trials within mixed blocks. Compared with the HC group, the OCD group exhibited less left inferior frontal gyrus/BA47 activation in the set-shifting contrast (i.e., HC > OCD, mixed versus repeated); only the HC group exhibited significant activation in this region. The correlation between set shifting-induced right caudate activation and shift cost (i.e., reaction time differential in response to mixed versus repeated trials) was significantly different between HC and OCD groups, in that we found a positive correlation in HC and a negative correlation in OCD. CONCLUSIONS: In pediatric OCD, less fronto-striatal activation may explain previously identified deficits in shifting cognitive sets.  
  Call Number Serial 2043  
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Author (up) Cattaneo, L.; Fabbri-Destro, M.; Boria, S.; Pieraccini, C.; Monti, A.; Cossu, G.; Rizzolatti, G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 104 Issue 45 Pages 17825-17830  
  Keywords Autistic Disorder--physiopathology; Child; Child, Preschool; Comprehension--physiology; Electromyography; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Intention; Male; Motor Activity; Perception--physiology; Reference Values  
  Abstract Experiments in monkeys demonstrated that many parietal and premotor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show a markedly different activation when this act is part of actions that have different goals (e.g., grasping for eating vs. grasping for placing). Many of these “action-constrained” neurons have mirror properties firing selectively to the observation of the initial motor act of the actions to which they belong motorically. By activating a specific action chain from its very outset, this mechanism allows the observers to have an internal copy of the whole action before its execution, thus enabling them to understand directly the agent's intention. Using electromyographic recordings, we show that a similar chained organization exists in typically developing children, whereas it is impaired in children with autism. We propose that, as a consequence of this functional impairment, high-functioning autistic children may understand the intentions of others cognitively but lack the mechanism for understanding them experientially.  
  Call Number Serial 18  
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Author (up) Elaad, E.; Ben-Shakhar, G. file  url
  Title Finger pulse waveform length in the detection of concealed information Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 61 Issue 2 Pages 226-234  
  Keywords Adult; Arousal/*physiology; Attention/*physiology; Autonomic Nervous System/physiology; Female; Galvanic Skin Response/*physiology; *Guilt; Habituation, Psychophysiologic/physiology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Lie Detection/*psychology; Male; Mathematical Computing; Orientation/physiology; Plethysmography/statistics & numerical data; Problem Solving/*physiology; Pulse/*statistics & numerical data; Reference Values; *Respiration; Sensitivity and Specificity; Theft/*psychology  
  Abstract An attempt was made to assess the efficiency of the finger pulse waveform length (FPWL), in detection of concealed information. For this purpose, two mock-theft experiments were designed. In the first, 40 guilty participants were examined while electrodermal, respiration and finger pulse volume were recorded. Results showed that detection accuracy with the FPWL was at least as good as the accuracy obtained with the other two measures (respiration changes and skin conductance responses). Detection efficiency was further improved when a combination of FPWL with the other two measures was used. In the second experiment, 39 guilty and 23 innocent participants were instructed to deny knowledge while the transducers were not attached to them. Then, the same questions were repeated while electrodermal, respiration and finger pulse volume were recorded. Results showed reduced rates of identification compared to the first experiment, which were explained by habituation. However, finger pulse was less affected by habituation than both respiration and skin conductance. Results suggested that the FPWL might be a useful addition to the existing measures in the detection of concealed information.  
  Call Number Serial 1443  
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Author (up) Filaire, M.; Vacheron, J.J.; Vanneuville, G.; Poumarat, G.; Garcier, J.M.; Harouna, Y.; Guillot, M.; Terver, S.; Toumi, H.; Thierry, C. file  url
  Title Influence of the mode of load carriage on the static posture of the pelvic girdle and the thoracic and lumbar spine in vivo Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy : SRA Abbreviated Journal Surg Radiol Anat  
  Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 27-31  
  Keywords Adult; Humans; Intervertebral Disc Displacement/physiopathology; Lumbar Vertebrae/*physiology; Male; Pelvis/*physiology; Posture/*physiology; Reference Values; Thoracic Vertebrae/*physiology; Weight-Bearing/physiology  
  Abstract The influence of various modes of carrying a load of 16 kg (15.69 DaN) on the static positioning of the pelvic girdle and the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spine was examined in seven male subjects. The displacement of cutaneous markers attached to easily palpable skeletal landmarks was recorded using 4 CCD cameras; the data acquired were analysed using an optoelectronic technique (SAGA3). The subjects stood upright on an AMTI biomechanical force platform, from which the ground reaction forces enabled displacements of the centre of gravity axis and thus the moment of the mass carried to be determined. The modes of load carriage examined were: 1) in a case in the left hand; 2) in a case in the right hand; 3) equally in two cases; 4) on the head; 5) in a rucksack; and 6) in an anterior bag. The results showed displacements of the pelvic girdle, the caudal and cranial lumbar segments, and the caudal and cranial thoracic segments in the three orthogonal planes (sagittal, frontal and transverse). The influence of the moment created by the load was seen in the statokinesigrams. The use of external markers using an optoelectronic technique, in association with the ground reaction forces, enables the mode of load carriage to be determined. The results show that the influence of the moment exerted by the mode of load carriage on the gravity axis has important ergonomic consequences.  
  Call Number Serial 143  
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Author (up) Frokjaer, V.G.; Mortensen, E.L.; Nielsen, F.A.; Haugbol, S.; Pinborg, L.H.; Adams, K.H.; Svarer, C.; Hasselbalch, S.G.; Holm, S.; Paulson, O.B.; Knudsen, G.M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding in healthy subjects is associated with personality risk factors for affective disorder Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 6 Pages 569-576  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Biological Markers; *Character; Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Dominance, Cerebral/physiology; Female; Fluorine Radioisotopes/*diagnostic use; Frontal Lobe/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Gyrus Cinguli/physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Humans; *Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Ketanserin/*analogs & derivatives/diagnostic use; Limbic System/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; *Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Middle Aged; Neurotic Disorders/diagnosis/*physiopathology/radionuclide imaging; Personality Inventory; *Positron-Emission Tomography; Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A/*physiology; Reference Values; Risk Factors; Statistics as Topic; Temporal Lobe/physiopathology/radionuclide imaging  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Serotonergic dysfunction has been associated with affective disorders. High trait neuroticism, as measured on personality inventories, is a risk factor for major depression. In this study we investigated whether neuroticism is associated with serotonin 2A receptor binding in brain regions of relevance for affective disorders. METHODS: Eighty-three healthy volunteers completed the standardized personality questionnaire NEO-PI-R (Revised NEO Personality Inventory) and underwent [(18)F]altanserin positron emission tomography imaging for assessment of serotonin 2A receptor binding. The correlation between the neuroticism score and frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender. RESULTS: Neuroticism correlated positively with frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding [r(79) = .24, p = .028]. Post hoc analysis of the contributions from the six constituent traits of neuroticism showed that the correlation was primarily driven by two of them: vulnerability and anxiety. Indeed, vulnerability, defined as a person's difficulties in coping with stress, displayed the strongest positive correlation, which remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons (r = .35, p = .009). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects the personality dimension neuroticism and particularly its constituent trait, vulnerability, are positively associated with frontolimbic serotonin 2A binding. Our findings point to a neurobiological link between personality risk factors for affective disorder and the serotonergic transmitter system and identify the serotonin 2A receptor as a biomarker for vulnerability to affective disorder.  
  Call Number Serial 1114  
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Author (up) Hoeft, F.; Walter, E.; Lightbody, A.A.; Hazlett, H.C.; Chang, C.; Piven, J.; Reiss, A.L. file  url
  Title Neuroanatomical differences in toddler boys with fragile x syndrome and idiopathic autism Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Archives of General Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Arch Gen Psychiatry  
  Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 295-305  
  Keywords Amygdala--pathology, physiopathology; Autistic Disorder--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Brain--pathology, physiopathology; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex--pathology, physiopathology; Child, Preschool; Communication; Developmental Disabilities--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Fragile X Syndrome--genetics, pathology, physiopathology, psychology; Frontal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology; Genetic Diseases, Inborn--genetics; Gyrus Cinguli--pathology, physiopathology; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Infant; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Reference Values; Social Behavior; Stereotyped Behavior--physiology; Temporal Lobe--pathology, physiopathology  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder for which there is no known unifying etiology or pathogenesis. Many conditions of atypical development can lead to autism, including fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is presently the most common known single-gene cause of autism. OBJECTIVE: To examine whole-brain morphometric patterns that discriminate young boys with FXS from those with idiopathic autism (iAUT) as well as control participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, in vivo neuroimaging study. SETTING: Academic medical centers. PATIENTS: Young boys (n = 165; aged 1.57-4.15 years) diagnosed as having FXS or iAUT as well as typically developing and idiopathic developmentally delayed controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Univariate voxel-based morphometric analyses, voxel-based morphometric multivariate pattern classification (linear support vector machine), and clustering analyses (self-organizing map). RESULTS: We found that frontal and temporal gray and white matter regions often implicated in social cognition, including the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, superior temporal region, temporal pole, amygdala, insula, and dorsal cingulum, were aberrant in FXS and iAUT as compared with controls. However, these differences were in opposite directions for FXS and iAUT relative to controls; in general, greater volume was seen in iAUT compared with controls, who in turn had greater volume than FXS. Multivariate analysis showed that the overall pattern of brain structure in iAUT generally resembled that of the controls more than FXS, both with and without AUT. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that FXS and iAUT are associated with distinct neuroanatomical patterns, further underscoring the neurobiological heterogeneity of iAUT.  
  Call Number Serial 17  
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Author (up) Lamm, C.; Batson, C.D.; Decety, J. file  url
  Title The neural substrate of human empathy: effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Cogn Neurosci  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 42-58  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; *Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/blood supply/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; *Emotions; *Empathy; Facial Expression; Female; Functional Laterality; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; Male; Oxygen/blood; Photic Stimulation/methods; Questionnaires; Reference Values; Social Perception; Statistics as Topic  
  Abstract Whether observation of distress in others leads to empathic concern and altruistic motivation, or to personal distress and egoistic motivation, seems to depend upon the capacity for self-other differentiation and cognitive appraisal. In this experiment, behavioral measures and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging were used to investigate the effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal while participants observed the facial expression of pain resulting from medical treatment. Video clips showing the faces of patients were presented either with the instruction to imagine the feelings of the patient (“imagine other”) or to imagine oneself to be in the patient's situation (“imagine self”). Cognitive appraisal was manipulated by providing information that the medical treatment had or had not been successful. Behavioral measures demonstrated that perspective-taking and treatment effectiveness instructions affected participants' affective responses to the observed pain. Hemodynamic changes were detected in the insular cortices, anterior medial cingulate cortex (aMCC), amygdala, and in visual areas including the fusiform gyrus. Graded responses related to the perspective-taking instructions were observed in middle insula, aMCC, medial and lateral premotor areas, and selectively in left and right parietal cortices. Treatment effectiveness resulted in signal changes in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, in the ventromedial orbito-frontal cortex, in the right lateral middle frontal gyrus, and in the cerebellum. These findings support the view that humans' responses to the pain of others can be modulated by cognitive and motivational processes, which influence whether observing a conspecific in need of help will result in empathic concern, an important instigator for helping behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 245  
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Author (up) Losh, M.; Adolphs, R.; Poe, M.D.; Couture, S.; Penn, D.; Baranek, G.T.; Piven, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Neuropsychological profile of autism and the broad autism phenotype Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Archives of General Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Arch Gen Psychiatry  
  Volume 66 Issue 5 Pages 518-526  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder/*diagnosis/*genetics/psychology; Cognition Disorders/*diagnosis/*genetics/psychology; Emotions; Face; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics; Humans; Intelligence/genetics; Male; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests/*statistics & numerical data; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Personal Construct Theory; Personality Assessment/statistics & numerical data; *Phenotype; Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data; Reference Values; Reproducibility of Results; Social Behavior; Young Adult  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Multiple articles describe a constellation of language, personality, and social-behavioral features present in relatives that mirror the symptom domains of autism, but are much milder in expression. Studies of this broad autism phenotype (BAP) may provide a potentially important complementary approach for detecting the genes causing autism and defining associated neural circuitry by identifying more refined phenotypes that can be measured quantitatively in both affected and unaffected individuals and that are tied to functioning in particular regions of the brain. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into neuropsychological features that index genetic liability to autism. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: The general community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight high-functioning individuals with autism and parents of autistic individuals, both with and without the BAP (n = 83), as well as control individuals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing social cognition, executive function, and global vs local processing strategies (central coherence). RESULTS: Both individuals with autism and parents with the BAP differed from controls on measures of social cognition, with performance in the other 2 domains being more similar to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that the social cognitive domain may be an important target for linking phenotype to cognitive process to brain structure in autism and may ultimately provide insight into the genes involved in autism.  
  Call Number Serial 1119  
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Author (up) Makrides, L.; Heigenhauser, G.J.; Jones, N.L. file  url
  Title High-intensity endurance training in 20- to 30- and 60- to 70-yr-old healthy men Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) Abbreviated Journal J Appl Physiol (1985)  
  Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages 1792-1798  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aging/*physiology; Anaerobic Threshold; Cardiac Output; Exercise Test; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Muscles/physiology; Oxygen Consumption; *Physical Education and Training; *Physical Endurance; Reference Values; Stroke Volume  
  Abstract Factors contributing to maximal incremental and short-term exercise capacity were measured before and after 12 wk of high-intensity endurance training in 12 old (60-70 yr) and 10 young (20-30 yr) sedentary healthy males. Peak O2 uptake in incremental cycle ergometer exercise increased from 1.60 +/- 0.073 to 2.21 +/- 0.073 (SE) l/min (38% increase) in the old subjects and from 2.54 +/- 0.141 to 3.26 +/- 0.181 l/min (29%) in the young subjects. Peak cardiac output, estimated by extrapolation from a series of submaximal measurements by the CO2 rebreathing method, increased by 30% (from 12.7 to 16.5 l/min) in the old subjects, associated with a 6% increase (from 126 to 135 ml/l) in arteriovenous O2 difference; in the young subjects there were equal 14% increases in both variables (18.0 to 20.5 l/min and 140 to 159 ml/l, respectively). Submaximal mean arterial pressure and cardiac output were lower posttraining in the old subjects; total vascular conductance and cardiac stroke volume increased. Although peak power at the start of a short-term maximal isokinetic test did not change, total work accomplished in 30 s at a pedaling frequency of 110 revolutions/min increased in both groups, from 11.2 to 12.6 kJ and from 15.7 to 16.9 kJ in the old and young, respectively; fatigue during the 30-s test was less, and postexercise plasma lactate concentrations were lower. In older subjects, increases in aerobic power after high-intensity endurance training are at least as large as in younger subjects and are associated with increases in vascular conductance, maximal cardiac output, and stroke volume.  
  Call Number Serial 1276  
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Author (up) Salthouse, T.A. file  url
  Title Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 532-545  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Memory/physiology; Middle Aged; Models, Psychological; Neuropsychological Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Psychometrics; Reference Values; Space Perception/physiology; Verbal Behavior/physiology; Weights and Measures/*standards  
  Abstract Although frequently mentioned in contemporary neuropsychology, the term executive functioning has been a source of considerable confusion. One way in which the meaning of a variable can be investigated involves examining its pattern of relations with established cognitive abilities. This method was applied to a variety of variables hypothesized to assess executive functioning in 2 data sets, 1 consisting of 328 adults between 18 and 93 years of age and a 2nd composite data set based on nearly 7,000 healthy adults between 18 and 95 years of age. Most of the hypothesized executive functioning variables were strongly related to reasoning and perceptual speed abilities, and very few had any unique relations with age after taking into consideration the relations of age through the cognitive abilities. These results raise questions about the extent to which neuropsychological tests of executive functioning measure a distinct dimension of variation in normal adults.  
  Call Number Serial 2176  
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