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Author (up) Amato, P.R. file  url
  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author (up) Pearson, T.A.; Manolio, T.A. file  url
  Title How to interpret a genome-wide association study Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication JAMA Abbreviated Journal JAMA  
  Volume 299 Issue 11 Pages 1335-1344  
  Keywords *Genetic Research; *Genetics, Medical; *Genomics; Genotype; Humans; Patient Selection; *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Quality Control; Research Design; Terminology as Topic  
  Abstract Genome-wide association (GWA) studies use high-throughput genotyping technologies to assay hundreds of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and relate them to clinical conditions and measurable traits. Since 2005, nearly 100 loci for as many as 40 common diseases and traits have been identified and replicated in GWA studies, many in genes not previously suspected of having a role in the disease under study, and some in genomic regions containing no known genes. GWA studies are an important advance in discovering genetic variants influencing disease but also have important limitations, including their potential for false-positive and false-negative results and for biases related to selection of study participants and genotyping errors. Although these studies are clearly many steps removed from actual clinical use, and specific applications of GWA findings in prevention and treatment are actively being pursued, at present these studies mainly represent a valuable discovery tool for examining genomic function and clarifying pathophysiologic mechanisms. This article describes the design, interpretation, application, and limitations of GWA studies for clinicians and scientists for whom this evolving science may have great relevance.  
  Call Number Serial 2143  
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Author (up) Stanford, S.C. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The Open Field Test: reinventing the wheel Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) Abbreviated Journal J Psychopharmacol  
  Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 134-135  
  Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/*methods/standards; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Mice; *Models, Animal; Motor Activity/*drug effects; Pharmacology/methods; Reproducibility of Results; Research Design/standards  
  Abstract Comments on an article by D. A. Blizard et al. (see record 2005-04842-010). A molecular geneticist advised me recently that no study of a new strain of mutant mice would survive peer review unless the Open Field Test has been used to profile their locomotor activity. This would certainly help to explain why the number of publications extracted by keywords 'open field' with 'locomotor activity' has increased fourfold in the last 10 years, but it's worrying. Although it is not at all certain what the Open Field Test actually measures, it is absolutely clear that it does not give a simple index of the status of motor output. It is easy to see why the Open Field Test is so alluring. The modest approach is to score the number of times the rodent crosses a matrix of lines that has been painted on the floor of the arena. Higher-tech labs have the option of using activity meters, which record the number of times the animal intercepts parallel beams of light that span the arena. When two adjacent infrared beams are intercepted, the animal is deemed to have engaged in locomotor activity rather than vegetative motor activities, which are scored as single beam breaks. The procedure is apparently so straightforward that neither the rodents nor the humans require specialist training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 355  
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Author (up) Urbanoski, K.A.; Kelly, J.F. file  url
  Title Understanding genetic risk for substance use and addiction: a guide for non-geneticists Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 60-70  
  Keywords Behavior, Addictive--genetics; Family; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Research Design; Risk Factors; Substance-Related Disorders--genetics  
  Abstract There is considerable enthusiasm for the potential of genetics research for prevention and treatment of addiction and other mental disorders. As a result, clinicians are increasingly exposed to issues of genetics that are fairly complex, and for which they may not have been adequately prepared by their training. Studies suggest that the heritability of substance use disorders is approximately 0.5. Others report that family members of affected individuals experience a 4- to 8-fold increased risk of disorder themselves. Statements that addiction is “50% genetic” in origin may be taken by some to imply one's chances of developing the disorder, or that a lack of a positive family history confers immunity. In fact, such conclusions are inaccurate, their implications unwarranted given the true meaning of heritability. Through a review of basic concepts in genetic epidemiology, we attempt to demystify these estimates of risk and situate them within the broader context of addiction. Methods of inferring population genetic variance and individual familial risk are examined, with a focus on their practical application and limitations. An accurate conceptualization of addiction necessitates an approach that transcends specific disciplines, making a basic awareness of the perspectives of disparate specialties key to furthering progress in the field.  
  Call Number Serial 469  
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Author (up) Wall, P.D. file  url
  Title The placebo effect: an unpopular topic Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 51 Issue 1 Pages 1-3  
  Keywords Conditioning, Classical; Humans; Placebo Effect; *Placebos; Research Design  
  Call Number Serial 241  
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Author (up) Walsh, R.N.; Cummins, R.A. file  url
  Title The Open-Field Test: a critical review Type Journal Article
  Year 1976 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 83 Issue 3 Pages 482-504  
  Keywords *Animal Experimentation; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Emotions/physiology; Ethology/instrumentation/*methods/statistics & numerical data; Exploratory Behavior/*physiology; Housing, Animal; Locomotion/physiology; Motor Activity/*physiology; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Research Design  
  Abstract Examines the use in the literature of the open-field test, especially with regard to the development of a standard form. The various procedures and their shortcomings are discussed, with particular reference to the seemingly inconsequential details which have been shown to modulate open-field performance per se. Dependent parameters are considered both with regard to their reliability and their validity for the measurement of such underlying constructs as emotionality. (92 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 354  
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