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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M. file  url
  Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246  
  Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.  
  Call Number Serial 1292  
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Author (up) Davis, J. file  url
  Title The effect of qualifying language on perceptions of drug appeal, drug experience, and estimates of side-effect incidence in DTC advertising Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Health Communication Abbreviated Journal J Health Commun  
  Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 607-622  
  Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*standards; Analysis of Variance; Drug Industry/*standards; Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Female; Humans; Likelihood Functions; Male; Patient Satisfaction/*statistics & numerical data; *Persuasive Communication; *Pharmaceutical Preparations; Risk Assessment/*standards; Surveys and Questionnaires; *Terminology as Topic; United States; United States Food and Drug Administration  
  Abstract This study examined how the use of qualifying language in direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising affects consumers' perceptions of drug appeal, anticipated pleasantness of drug usage, and the expected incidence of side-effect occurrence. A sample of 669 individuals participated in a 2 x 8 complete factorial design. The design manipulated the number of side effects associated with drug use and the type of qualifying language used to describe the side effects. The eight experimental qualifying language cells represented one control condition (no qualifying language), three cells where each of three types of qualifying language were presented individually, and four cells where qualifying language was combined. The results indicate that qualifying language has a profound effect on drug perceptions, especially when used in combination. Drug appeal and the anticipated drug-using experience almost always were more positive in the presence of qualifying language. Qualifying language appears to exert its influence by causing individuals to reduce their estimate of the likelihood of experiencing individual side effects. Policy implications of the research, particularly for evaluation of “fair balance” and the reporting of side effects, are presented.  
  Call Number Serial 1390  
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Author (up) Dielenberg, R.A.; McGregor, I.S. file  url
  Title Defensive behavior in rats towards predatory odors: a review Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews  
  Volume 25 Issue 7-8 Pages 597-609  
  Keywords Anxiety; Anxiolytic; Benzodiazepine; Blood pressure; Cat odor; Conditioned fear; Defense; Predator; Rat; Risk assessment  
  Abstract Studies of the response of rodents to predatory odors (mainly cat) have provided useful insights into the nature of defensive behavior. This article reviews work in this area with a focus on a behavioral paradigm recently developed in our laboratory in which we present rats with a piece of fabric collar that has been previously worn by a cat. Rats presented with this stimulus spent most of their time engaged in a behavior we call ‘head out’ in which the rat pokes its head out from a hide box and scans the environment. Periodic ‘flat back approaches’ and ‘vigilant rearing’ towards the cat odor source are seen as well as inhibition of non-defensive behaviors such as locomotor activity and grooming. Cat odor causes a sustained increase in blood pressure (>15 mm Hg) without greatly affecting heart beat rate. Rats will develop conditioned fear to both contexts and cues that have been paired with cat odor. C-fos immunohistochemistry indicates that cat odor selectively activates a defensive behavior circuit involving the medial amygdala, ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamus, dorsal premammillary nucleus and the periaqueductal gray. The defensive response to cat odor is attenuated by acute administration of the benzodiazepine midazolam (0.375 mg/kg), with chronically administered SSRI antidepressants and acute alcohol exerting more modest anxiolytic effects. The behavioral response to cat odor is very different to that seen to trimethylthiazoline (TMT: fox odor) which has effects more like those seen to an aversive putrid odor. It is concluded that cat odor is a useful tool for elucidating behavioral, neural, pharmacological and autonomic aspects of defensive behavior and anxiety.  
  Call Number Serial 2116  
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Author (up) Domingo, J.L.; Gine Bordonaba, J. file  url
  Title A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Environment International Abbreviated Journal Environ Int  
  Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 734-742  
  Keywords Animals; Consumer Product Safety; Cucumis sativus--genetics, toxicity; Humans; Lycopersicon esculentum--genetics, toxicity; Oryza sativa--genetics, toxicity; Peas--genetics, toxicity; Plants, Genetically Modified--adverse effects, toxicity; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Risk Assessment; Solanum tuberosum--genetics, toxicity; Soybeans--genetics, toxicity; Zea mays--genetics, toxicity  
  Abstract In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed.  
  Call Number Serial 75  
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Author (up) Kang, J.; Cho, J.; Zhao, H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Practical issues in building risk-predicting models for complex diseases Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics Abbreviated Journal J Biopharm Stat  
  Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 415-440  
  Keywords Algorithms; Computer Simulation; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Empirical Research; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Genome-Wide Association Study/statistics & numerical data; Humans; *Models, Statistical; Mutation; Odds Ratio; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors  
  Abstract Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic variants affecting complex human diseases. It is of great interest to build disease risk prediction models based on these data. In this article, we first discuss statistical challenges in using genome-wide association data for risk predictions, and then review the findings from the literature on this topic. We also demonstrate the performance of different methods through both simulation studies and application to real-world data.  
  Call Number Serial 189  
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Author (up) Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst-Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; van Rie, J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Abbreviated Journal Food Chem Toxicol  
  Volume 42 Issue 7 Pages 1157-1180  
  Keywords Animals; Consumer Product Safety/*legislation & jurisprudence/standards; Food Analysis/*legislation & jurisprudence/methods/standards; Food Supply/*legislation & jurisprudence; Food, Genetically Modified/*adverse effects/standards; Genetic Engineering; Humans; International Cooperation; *Organisms, Genetically Modified; Plants, Genetically Modified/*adverse effects/genetics; Risk Assessment/*methods  
  Abstract Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials with varying chromosome numbers. The existing and proposed regulatory EU requirements for traceability of genetically modified products fit within a broader tendency towards traceability of foods in general and, commercially, towards products that can be distinguished from each other. Traceability systems document the history of a product and may serve the purpose of both marketing and health protection. In this framework, segregation and identity preservation systems allow for the separation of genetically modified and non-modified products from “farm to fork”. Implementation of these systems comes with specific technical requirements for each particular step of the food processing chain. In addition, the feasibility of traceability systems depends on a number of factors, including unique identifiers for each genetically modified product, detection methods, permissible levels of contamination, and financial costs. In conclusion, progress has been achieved in the field of sampling, detection, and traceability of genetically modified products, while some issues remain to be solved. For success, much will depend on the threshold level for adventitious contamination set by legislation.  
  Call Number Serial 150  
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Author (up) Muturi, N.; Mwangi, S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Older adults' perspectives on HIV/AIDS prevention strategies for rural Kenya Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Health Communication Abbreviated Journal Health Commun  
  Volume 26 Issue 8 Pages 712-723  
  Keywords Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology/prevention & control/psychology; Aged; Community-Based Participatory Research/methods; Culture; Female; Focus Groups; HIV Infections/epidemiology/prevention & control/*psychology; Health Behavior; Health Communication; *Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Literacy; Humans; Kenya/epidemiology; Male; Middle Aged; *Perception; Risk Assessment; *Rural Population; Sexual Behavior  
  Abstract HIV/AIDS is devastating sub-Saharan Africa with great impact in the rural communities. Though prevention is the mainstay of various responses to the epidemic, communication strategies used to influence risk perception and motivate behavior change are culturally inappropriate, hence the lack of success. The bulk of prevention efforts target the 15-49 age group, resulting in limited knowledge and understanding of HIV/AIDS in adults over age 50 who are considered at a lower or no risk of infection. This paper addresses older adults as a key segment of the population in HIV/AIDS prevention given the increasing number that is living with the disease or newly infected. Many older adults are also caregivers of those infected and affected by the disease. As cultural, social, political, and opinion leaders in rural Kenya, older adults are in a position to influence attitudes and behaviors of their community members, but they have not been involved in the current intervention strategies. Through application of a participatory and culture-centered approach, the study sought views of older adults on the factors contributing to the epidemic in rural Kenya and their opinions on effective prevention strategies that are culturally appropriate. Several recommendations are made for a culture-specific HIV/AIDS prevention intervention for rural Kenya.  
  Call Number Serial 387  
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Author (up) Oyelese, Y.; Smulian, J.C. file  url
  Title Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Obstetrics and Gynecology Abbreviated Journal Obstet Gynecol  
  Volume 107 Issue 4 Pages 927-941  
  Keywords Balloon Occlusion/methods; Cesarean Section; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Hysterectomy/*methods; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Methotrexate/therapeutic use; Physical Examination/methods; Placenta Accreta/diagnosis/*therapy; Placenta Diseases/diagnostic imaging/surgery; Placenta Previa/diagnosis/*therapy; Postpartum Hemorrhage/diagnosis/*therapy; Pregnancy; Risk Assessment; Severity of Illness Index; Treatment Outcome; Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color; Ultrasonography, Prenatal  
  Abstract Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa are important causes of bleeding in the second half of pregnancy and in labor. Risk factors for placenta previa include prior cesarean delivery, pregnancy termination, intrauterine surgery, smoking, multifetal gestation, increasing parity, and maternal age. The diagnostic modality of choice for placenta previa is transvaginal ultrasonography, and women with a complete placenta previa should be delivered by cesarean. Small studies suggest that, when the placenta to cervical os distance is greater than 2 cm, women may safely have a vaginal delivery. Regional anesthesia for cesarean delivery in women with placenta previa is safe. Delivery should take place at an institution with adequate blood banking facilities. The incidence of placenta accreta is rising, primarily because of the rise in cesarean delivery rates. This condition can be associated with massive blood loss at delivery. Prenatal diagnosis by imaging, followed by planning of peripartum management by a multidisciplinary team, may help reduce morbidity and mortality. Women known to have placenta accreta should be delivered by cesarean, and no attempt should be made to separate the placenta at the time of delivery. The majority of women with significant degrees of placenta accreta will require a hysterectomy. Although successful conservative management has been described, there are currently insufficient data to recommend this approach to management routinely. Vasa previa carries a risk of fetal exsanguination and death when the membranes rupture. The condition can be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound examination. Good outcomes depend on prenatal diagnosis and cesarean delivery before the membranes rupture.  
  Call Number Serial 2166  
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Author (up) Prentky, R.; Harris, B.; Frizzell, K.; Righthand, S. file  url
  Title An actuarial procedure for assessing risk with juvenile sex offenders Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Sexual Abuse : a Journal of Research and Treatment Abbreviated Journal Sex Abuse  
  Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 71-93  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior/psychology; Adult; Child; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; *Juvenile Delinquency; Paraphilic Disorders/*diagnosis/therapy; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Assessment; *Sex Offenses  
  Abstract Assessments of juvenile sexual offenders that are intended to aid in dispositional decisions occur at a multitude of decision points within the juvenile justice system. Despite the ubiquity of decisions that include considerations of risk, relatively little empirical work has been done on the development and validation of a risk assessment procedure for these young offenders. In this article, we discuss our initial efforts in developing and validating an actuarial risk assessment protocol for juvenile sex offenders using a sample of 96 adolescents that had been admitted, treated, and discharged from the Joseph J. Peters Institute. We conclude with a critical discussion of problems associated with evaluating risk in this population, and of deficiencies and revision requirements in the present protocol.  
  Call Number Serial 1961  
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Author (up) Quinlisk, P.; Jones, M.J.; Bostick, N.A.; Walsh, L.E.; Curtiss, R.; Walker, R.; Mercer, S.; Subbarao, I. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Results of rapid needs assessments in rural and urban Iowa following large-scale flooding events in 2008 Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness Abbreviated Journal Disaster Med Public Health Prep  
  Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 287-292  
  Keywords Disaster Planning/history/*statistics & numerical data; Floods/history/*statistics & numerical data; Geographic Information Systems; Health Services Needs and Demand/history/*statistics & numerical data; History, 21st Century; Humans; Iowa; Needs Assessment/statistics & numerical data; Public Health/history/methods/statistics & numerical data; Relief Work/history/*statistics & numerical data; Risk Assessment/methods; Rural Population/history/*statistics & numerical data; Time Factors; Urban Population/history/*statistics & numerical data  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: On June 8 and 9, 2008, more than 4 inches of rain fell in the Iowa-Cedars River Basin causing widespread flooding along the Cedar River in Benton, Linn, Johnson, and Cedar Counties. As a result of the flooding, there were 18 deaths, 106 injuries, and over 38,000 people displaced from their homes; this made it necessary for the Iowa Department of Health to conduct a rapid needs assessment to quantify the scope and effect of the floods on human health. METHODS: In response, the Iowa Department of Public Health mobilized interview teams to conduct rapid needs assessments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based cluster sampling techniques. The information gathered was subsequently employed to estimate the public health impact and significant human needs that resulted from the flooding. RESULTS: While these assessments did not reveal significant levels of acute injuries resulting from the flood, they did show that many households had been temporarily displaced and that future health risks may emerge as the result of inadequate access to prescription medications or the presence of environmental health hazards. CONCLUSIONS: This exercise highlights the need for improved risk communication measures and ongoing surveillance and relief measures. It also demonstrates the utility of rapid needs assessment survey tools and suggests that increasing use of such surveys can have significant public health benefits.  
  Call Number Serial 513  
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