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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
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Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Wilens, T.E.; Biederman, J.; Kwon, A.; Ditterline, J.; Forkner, P.; Moore, H.; Swezey, A.; Snyder, L.; Henin, A.; Wozniak, J.; Faraone, S.V. file  url
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Title Risk of substance use disorders in adolescents with bipolar disorder Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
Volume 43 Issue 11 Pages 1380-1386  
Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Bipolar Disorder/*complications/*psychology; Case-Control Studies; Child; Female; Humans; Male; Risk Factors; Substance-Related Disorders/*etiology/*psychology  
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Previous work in adults and youths has suggested that juvenile onset bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of substance use disorders (SUD). Considering the public health importance of this issue, the authors now report on a controlled study of adolescents with and without BPD to evaluate the risk of SUD. METHOD: Probands with DSM-IV BPD (n=57, mean age +/- SD=13.3 +/- 2.4 years) and without DSM-IV BPD (n=46, 13.6 +/- 2.2 years) were studied. Structured psychiatric interviews and multiple measures of SUD were collected. RESULTS: Bipolar disorder was associated with a highly significant risk factor for SUD (32% versus 7%, Z=2.9, p=.004) that was not accounted for by conduct disorder (adjusted odds ratio=5.4, p=.018). Adolescent-onset BPD (> or =13 years) was associated with a higher risk of SUD compared with those with child-onset BPD (chi1=9.3, p=.002). CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly indicate that BPD, especially adolescent onset, is a significant risk factor for SUD independently of conduct disorder.  
Call Number Serial 2170  
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Author Freedberg, D.E.; Salmasian, H.; Cohen, B.; Abrams, J.A.; Larson, E.L. file  url
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Title Receipt of Antibiotics in Hospitalized Patients and Risk for Clostridium difficile Infection in Subsequent Patients Who Occupy the Same Bed Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication JAMA Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal JAMA Intern Med  
Volume 176 Issue 12 Pages 1801-1808  
Keywords Aged; Antacids/therapeutic use; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*therapeutic use; *Beds; Clostridium Infections/*drug therapy/*transmission; Clostridium difficile; Cohort Studies; Cross Infection/*epidemiology/microbiology; Female; *Hospitalization; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Male; Middle Aged; New York City/epidemiology; Retrospective Studies; Risk; Risk Factors  
Abstract Objective: To assess whether receipt of antibiotics by prior hospital bed occupants is associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients who occupy the same bed. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult patients hospitalized in any 1 of 4 facilities between 2010 and 2015. Patients were excluded if they had recent CDI, developed CDI within 48 hours of admission, had inadequate follow-up time, or if their prior bed occupant was in the bed for less than 24 hours. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary exposure was receipt of non-CDI antibiotics by the prior bed occupant and the primary outcome was incident CDI in the subsequent patient to occupy the same bed. Incident CDI was defined as a positive result from a stool polymerase chain reaction for the C difficile toxin B gene followed by treatment for CDI. Demographics, comorbidities, laboratory data, and medication exposures are reported. Results: Among 100615 pairs of patients who sequentially occupied a given hospital bed, there were 576 pairs (0.57%) in which subsequent patients developed CDI. Receipt of antibiotics in prior patients was significantly associated with incident CDI in subsequent patients (log-rank P < .01). This relationship remained unchanged after adjusting for factors known to influence risk for CDI including receipt of antibiotics by the subsequent patient (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45) and also after excluding 1497 patient pairs among whom the prior patients developed CDI (aHR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.43). Aside from antibiotics, no other factors related to the prior bed occupants were associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Receipt of antibiotics by prior bed occupants was associated with increased risk for CDI in subsequent patients. Antibiotics can directly affect risk for CDI in patients who do not themselves receive antibiotics.  
Call Number Serial 2082  
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Author Nigg, J.T.; Wong, M.M.; Martel, M.M.; Jester, J.M.; Puttler, L.I.; Glass, J.M.; Adams, K.M.; Fitzgerald, H.E.; Zucker, R.A. file  url
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Title Poor response inhibition as a predictor of problem drinking and illicit drug use in adolescents at risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 468-475  
Keywords Adolescent; Alcoholism/*psychology; Attention; Child; Female; Forecasting; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Male; *Reaction Time; Risk Factors; Substance-Related Disorders/*psychology; Thinking  
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. METHOD: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime drinking and drug-related ratings at multiple time points including late adolescence (ages 15-17). Multi-informant measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder were obtained in early childhood (ages 3-5), middle childhood, and adolescence. RESULTS: In multilevel models, poor response inhibition predicted aggregate alcohol-related problems, the number of illicit drugs used, and comorbid alcohol and drug use (but not the number of drug-related problems), independently of IQ, parental alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder, child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct symptoms, or age. Multivariate models explained 8% to 20% of residual variance in outcome scores. The incremental predictive power of response inhibition was modest, explaining about 1% of the variance in most outcomes, but more than 9% of the residual variance in problem outcomes within the highest risk families. Other measured executive functions did not independently predict substance use onset. CONCLUSION: Models of alcoholism and other drug risks that invoke executive functions may benefit from specifying response inhibition as an incremental component.  
Call Number Serial 2059  
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Author Burg, M.M.; Barefoot, J.; Berkman, L.; Catellier, D.J.; Czajkowski, S.; Saab, P.; Huber, M.; DeLillo, V.; Mitchell, P.; Skala, J.; Taylor, C.B. file  url
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Title Low perceived social support and post-myocardial infarction prognosis in the enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease clinical trial: the effects of treatment Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Psychosomatic Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychosom Med  
Volume 67 Issue 6 Pages 879-888  
Keywords Cognitive Therapy; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity; Coronary Disease/*drug therapy/mortality; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Mortality; Myocardial Infarction/*diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Prognosis; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk Factors; Secondary Prevention; *Social Support; Spouses/statistics & numerical data; Treatment Outcome  
Abstract OBJECTIVE: In post hoc analyses, to examine in low perceived social support (LPSS) patients enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial (n = 1503), the pattern of social support following myocardial infarction (MI), the impact of psychosocial intervention on perceived support, the relationship of perceived support at the time of MI to subsequent death and recurrent MI, and the relationship of change in perceived support 6 months after MI to subsequent mortality. METHODS: Partner status (partner, no partner) and score (<12 = low support; >12 = moderate support) on the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) were used post hoc to define four levels of risk. The resulting 4 LPSS risk groups were compared on baseline characteristics, changes in social support, and medical outcomes to a group of concurrently enrolled acute myocardial infarction patients without depression or LPSS (MI comparison group, n = 408). Effects of treatment assignment on LPSS and death/recurrent MI were also examined. RESULTS: All 4 LPSS risk groups demonstrated improvement in perceived support, regardless of treatment assignment, with a significant treatment effect only seen in the LPSS risk group with no partner and moderate support at baseline. During an average 29-month follow-up, the combined end point of death/nonfatal MI was 10% in the MI comparison group and 23% in the ENRICHD LPSS patients; LPSS conferred a greater risk in unadjusted and adjusted models (HR = 1.74-2.39). Change in ESSI score and/or improvement in perceived social support were not found to predict subsequent mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline LPSS predicted death/recurrent MI in the ENRICHD cohort, independent of treatment assignment. Intervention effects indicated a partner surrogacy role for the interventionist and the need for a moderate level of support at baseline for the intervention to be effective.  
Call Number Serial 2057  
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