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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
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  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Castro, J.P. file  url
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  Title Water services in Latin America: experiences with public private partnerships Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication International Journal of Water Abbreviated Journal Ijw  
  Volume 4 Issue 3/4 Pages 235  
  Keywords public?private partnerships, PPP, Millennium Development Goals, MDGs, Latin America, water supply, drinking water, sanitation, private sector involvement, PSI, water services  
  Abstract This paper analyses the appropriateness of public versus private models of providing and managing water and sanitation services. Better management practices, along with well-suited institutional arrangements, are needed to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on water supply and sanitation. There has been Private Sector Involvement (PSI) in the drinking water sector in the four cases studied in this paper: Buenos Aires, Cochabamba, Cartagena de Indias and Santiago de Chile. Each has its own particular history with regards to governance, the institutional arrangements and the particular socioeconomic conditions that were in place at the time of the PSI. The paper concludes that PSI in water services in Latin America may increase the possibility of reaching the targets established in the MDGs, but this can only happen if appropriate financial schemes for water tariffs are in tune with the consumers' ability to pay. Secondly, a solid institutional arrangement and a regulatory framework need to be in place, and finally there should be active citizen participation at the community level.  
  Call Number Serial 636  
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