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Author (up) Amato, P.R. file  url
  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author (up) Aro, H.M.; Palosaari, U.K. file  url
  Title Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: a follow-up study Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 62 Issue 3 Pages 421-429  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Cohort Studies; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Personality Development; Self Concept; Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology  
  Abstract In a long-term study of the effects of divorce, children in a Finnish town who had completed questionnaires in school at age 16 were followed up with postal questionnaires at age 22. Depression in young adulthood was found to be slightly more common among children from divorced families. In addition, the life trajectories of children in divorced families revealed more stressful paths and more distress in both adolescence and young adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 279  
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Author (up) Coll, M.-P.; Budell, L.; Rainville, P.; Decety, J.; Jackson, P.L. file  url
  Title The role of gender in the interaction between self-pain and the perception of pain in others Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society Abbreviated Journal J Pain  
  Volume 13 Issue 7 Pages 695-703  
  Keywords Adult; Empathy; Facial Expression; Female; Humans; Male; Pain--psychology; Pain Perception; Photic Stimulation; Self Concept; Sex Characteristics; Social Perception  
  Abstract While self-pain motivates protective behaviors and self-oriented feelings, the perception of others' pain often motivates concern and prosocial behaviors toward the person suffering. The conflicting consequences of these 2 states raise the question of how pain is perceived in others when one is actually in pain. Two conflicting hypotheses could predict the interaction between these 2 signals: the threat value of pain hypothesis and the shared-representation model of pain empathy. Here, we asked 33 healthy volunteers exposed to acute experimental pain to judge the intensity of the pain felt by models expressing different levels of pain in video clips. Results showed that compared to a control warm stimulus, a stimulus causing self-pain increased the perception of others' pain for clips depicting male pain expressions but decreased the perceived intensity of female high pain expressions in both male and female participants. These results show that one's own pain state influences the perception of pain in others and that the gender of the person observed influences this interaction. PERSPECTIVE: By documenting the effects of self-pain on pain perception in others, this study provides a better understanding of the shared mechanisms between self-pain and others' pain processing. It could ultimately provide clues as to how the health status of health care professionals could affect their ability to assess their patients' pain.  
  Call Number Serial 546  
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Author (up) Gardner, R.M.; Stark, K.; Friedman, B.N.; Jackson, N.A. file  url
  Title Predictors of eating disorder scores in children ages 6 through 14: a longitudinal study Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Psychosomatic Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychosom Res  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 199-205  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology; Body Constitution; *Body Image; Child; Child Psychology; Colorado; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology); Depression; Eating Disorders/*diagnosis/*psychology; Family; Female; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Peer Group; Prognosis; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Self Concept; Sex Factors; *Social Desirability  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to identify variables that predict higher eating disorder scores in non-clinical boys and girls ages 6 through 14. Two hundred sixteen children participated and were tested annually for 3 years. A TV-video procedure was used to measure the accuracy of body size judgments. Variables examined included demographic, familial, sociocultural, social, esteem, and clinical variables. Predictors of higher eating disorder scores for both sexes included height and weight, children's perceptions of parental concerns about their body size, low body esteem, and depression. For girls only, a larger perceived body size and smaller idealized body size were also predictors. Teasing was a predictor for boys only. An analysis of longitudinal changes suggests that low body esteem becomes a significant factor around age 9, depression emerges as a predictor at age 10, and body size judgments in perceived and ideal sizes at ages 11 and 12. Changes over 2 years in individuals' weight and height, teasing, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorder scores were also found to predict higher eating disorder scores.  
  Call Number Serial 93  
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Author (up) Johnson, C.S.; Stapel, D.A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title No pain, no gain: the conditions under which upward comparisons lead to better performance Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Pers Soc Psychol  
  Volume 92 Issue 6 Pages 1051-1067  
  Keywords *Achievement; Adult; *Attitude; *Competitive Behavior; Female; Humans; Male; *Motivation; Questionnaires; *Self Concept; *Social Desirability  
  Abstract In 3 studies, the authors explored the relation between threatening upward social comparisons and performance. In an initial study, participants were exposed to comparison targets who either threatened or boosted self-evaluations and then completed a performance task. Participants exposed to the threatening target performed better than those in a control group, whereas those exposed to the nonthreatening target performed worse. In Study 2, self-affirmation prior to comparison with threatening targets eliminated performance improvements. In Study 3, performance improvements were found only when the performance domain was different from the domain of success of the comparison target. These boundary conditions suggest that increases in performance following social comparison arise from individuals' motivations to maintain and repair self-evaluations. Implications for the study of the behavioral consequences of social comparison are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 514  
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Author (up) Karidi, M.V.; Vassilopoulou, D.; Savvidou, E.; Vitoratou, S.; Maillis, A.; Rabavilas, A.; Stefanis, C.N. file  url
  Title Bipolar disorder and self-stigma: A comparison with schizophrenia Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Affective Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Affect Disord  
  Volume 184 Issue Pages 209-215  
  Keywords Adult; Bipolar Disorder/*psychology; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Empathy; Employment; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; *Schizophrenic Psychology; Self Concept; Social Behavior; *Social Stigma; Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult; Bipolar disorder; Simi; Schizophrenia; Self-stigma  
  Abstract AIM: Even though numerous studies have focused on the effects of self-stigma on patients with schizophrenia, little is known about self-stigma of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, a self-administered scale of self-stigmatising attitudes of patients with BD and schizophrenia was used to explore these attitudes, examine the potential differences between the two groups and study the factors that influence stigma within groups. METHODS: Self-stigma of 120 patients with schizophrenia and BD was assessed with the Self-stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness (SIMI). Presence of clinical symptoms, overall functioning and level of self-esteem were also evaluated. RESULTS: Self-stigma is present in both groups but differs in its intensity. Patients with BD experience self-stigma in a lesser degree without affecting their social life or overall functioning. Patients with schizophrenia adopt more intense self-stigmatising attitudes leading to social exclusion and lower level of overall functioning. LIMITATIONS: The results are limited by the small sample size, whereas the inclusion of other questionnaires would broaden our insight to self-stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Self-stigma has a direct effect on overall functioning of patients with BD and schizophrenia tampering the clinical outcome of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, it should be incorporated in every treatment plan and be addressed as a clinical symptom of the mental illness.  
  Call Number Serial 1692  
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Author (up) Killgore, W.D.S.; Kahn-Greene, E.T.; Lipizzi, E.L.; Newman, R.A.; Kamimori, G.H.; Balkin, T.J. file  url
  Title Sleep deprivation reduces perceived emotional intelligence and constructive thinking skills Type
  Year 2008 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 517-526  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological/drug effects; Adolescent; Adult; Assertiveness; *Awareness; Caffeine/administration & dosage; Culture; Defense Mechanisms; Double-Blind Method; *Emotions; Empathy; Female; Humans; Internal-External Control; Interpersonal Relations; Male; Personality Inventory; *Problem Solving/drug effects; Self Concept; Sleep Deprivation/drug therapy/*psychology; Superstitions/psychology; *Thinking; Young Adult  
  Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insufficient sleep can adversely affect a variety of cognitive abilities, ranging from simple alertness to higher-order executive functions. Although the effects of sleep loss on mood and cognition are well documented, there have been no controlled studies examining its effects on perceived emotional intelligence (EQ) and constructive thinking, abilities that require the integration of affect and cognition and are central to adaptive functioning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi) and the Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI) at rested baseline and again after 55.5 and 58 h of continuous wakefulness, respectively. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, sleep deprivation was associated with lower scores on Total EQ (decreased global emotional intelligence), Intrapersonal functioning (reduced self-regard, assertiveness, sense of independence, and self-actualization), Interpersonal functioning (reduced empathy toward others and quality of interpersonal relationships), Stress Management skills (reduced impulse control and difficulty with delay of gratification), and Behavioral Coping (reduced positive thinking and action orientation). Esoteric Thinking (greater reliance on formal superstitions and magical thinking processes) was increased. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with the neurobehavioral model suggesting that sleep loss produces temporary changes in cerebral metabolism, cognition, emotion, and behavior consistent with mild prefrontal lobe dysfunction.  
  Call Number Serial 264  
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Author (up) Lind, S.E. file  url
  Title Memory and the self in autism: A review and theoretical framework Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Autism : the International Journal of Research and Practice Abbreviated Journal Autism  
  Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages 430-456  
  Keywords Autistic Disorder--physiopathology, psychology; Awareness; Child; Child, Preschool; Humans; Infant; Memory Disorders; Mental Recall; Recognition (Psychology); Self Concept  
  Abstract This article reviews research on (a) autobiographical episodic and semantic memory, (b) the self-reference effect, (c) memory for the actions of self versus other (the self-enactment effect), and (d) non-autobiographical episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and provides a theoretical framework to account for the bidirectional relationship between memory and the self in ASD. It is argued that individuals with ASD have diminished psychological self-knowledge (as a consequence of diagnostic social and communication impairments), alongside intact physical self-knowledge, resulting in an under-elaborated self-concept. Consequently, individuals with ASD show impaired autobiographical episodic memory and a reduced self-reference effect (which may each rely on psychological aspects of the self-concept) but do not show specific impairments in memory for their own rather than others' actions (which may rely on physical aspects of the self-concept). However, it is also argued that memory impairments in ASD (e.g., in non-autobiographical episodic memory) may not be entirely accounted for in terms of self-related processes. Other factors, such as deficits in memory binding, may also play a role. Finally, it is argued that deficits in autobiographical episodic memory and future thinking may result in a diminished temporally extended self-concept in ASD.  
  Call Number Serial 59  
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Author (up) Long, N.; Forehand, R.; Fauber, R.; Brody, G.H. file  url
  Title Self-perceived and independently observed competence of young adolescents as a function of parental marital conflict and recent divorce Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 15-27  
  Keywords *Achievement; Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology; Child; Cognition; *Divorce; Female; Humans; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Marriage; Mother-Child Relations; Peer Group; Self Concept; Social Desirability  
  Abstract The self-perceived and independently observed cognitive and social competence of young adolescents as a function of parental conflict and recent divorce was investigated. Subjects were 40 young adolescents between the ages of 11 years 1 month and 15 years 1 month. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used, with the independent variables being parental marital status (married vs. recently divorced) and parental conflict (high vs. low). Dependent variables included the following measures of adolescent competence: adolescent-completed measures of self-perceived competence, teacher-completed measures, behavioral observations, and school grades. The results indicated that the level of parental conflict, rather than parental marital status, appears to be the critical variable associated with adolescents' independently observed levels of cognitive and social competence. In regard to adolescents' self-perceived levels of cognitive and social competence, parental marital status was found to be the critical variable. The implications of these findings are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 286  
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Author (up) Sanchez-Hucles, J.V.; Davis, D.D. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Women and women of color in leadership: complexity, identity, and intersectionality Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The American Psychologist Abbreviated Journal Am Psychol  
  Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 171-181  
  Keywords Career Mobility; Female; Humans; *Leadership; *Population Groups; *Prejudice; Self Concept; Social Identification; Social Perception; *Stereotyping  
  Abstract This article describes the challenges that women and women of color face in their quest to achieve and perform in leadership roles in work settings. We discuss the barriers that women encounter and specifically address the dimensions of gender and race and their impact on leadership. We identify the factors associated with gender evaluations of leaders and the stereotypes and other challenges faced by White women and women of color. We use ideas concerning identity and the intersection of multiple identities to understand the way in which gender mediates and shapes the experience of women in the workplace. We conclude with suggestions for research and theory development that may more fully capture the complex experience of women who serve as leaders.  
  Call Number Serial 268  
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