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Author (up) Amato, P.R.
Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol
Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology
Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.
Call Number Serial 276
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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M.
Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act
Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246
Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States
Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.
Call Number Serial 1292
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Author (up) Block, J.H.; Block, J.; Gjerde, P.F.
Title The personality of children prior to divorce: a prospective study Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev
Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 827-840
Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Divorce; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; *Personality; Personality Development; Prospective Studies; Sex Factors; Stress, Psychological/psychology
Abstract In a longitudinal study, the personalities of children from intact families at ages 3, 4, and 7 were reliably assessed by independent sets of raters using Q-items reflecting important psychological characteristics of children. A number of these families subsequently experienced divorce. The behavior of boys was found, as early as 11 years prior to parental separation or formal dissolution of marriage, to be consistently affected by what can be presumed to be predivorce familial stress. The behavior of boys from subsequently divorcing families was characterized by undercontrol of impulse, aggression, and excessive energy prior to parental divorce. The behavior of girls from subsequently divorcing families was found to be notably less affected by the stresses in families prior to parental divorce. The prospective relations afforded by the longitudinal analyses suggest that the behavior of conflicting, inaccessible parents during the preseparation period may have serious consequences for personality development, especially for boys. Hence, some characteristics of children commonly seen to be a consequence of divorce may be present prior to marital dissolution.
Call Number Serial 280
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Author (up) Boeuf-Cazou, O.; Bongue, B.; Ansiau, D.; Marquie, J.-C.; Lapeyre-Mestre, M.
Title Impact of long-term benzodiazepine use on cognitive functioning in young adults: the VISAT cohort Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Clin Pharmacol
Volume 67 Issue 10 Pages 1045-1052
Keywords Adult; Aptitude/drug effects; Benzodiazepines/*administration & dosage/adverse effects; Cognition/*drug effects; Cohort Studies; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Memory, Long-Term/drug effects; Mental Recall/drug effects; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests; Prospective Studies; Questionnaires; Sex Factors
Abstract PURPOSE: Results from a number of studies have suggested a relationship between cognitive alteration and benzodiazepine use in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of benzodiazepine use on cognitive functions in a young adult population. METHODS: This study included 1,019 French salaried workers from the VISAT (Aging, Health and Work) cohort whose objective was to determine the long-term impact of working conditions on health and aging. Data were collected during interviews by occupational physicians in 1996, 2001 and 2006. Cognitive function was assessed using five cognitive tests (immediate free recall test, delayed free recall test, recognition test, Digit Symbol Substitution Subtest and visual search speed test). Cognitive scores obtained after a 10-year follow-up were investigated among three categories of benzodiazepine users, namely, non-users, occasional users and long-term users, using analysis of covariance models adjusted for several potential confounders in men and women separately. RESULTS: In the course of the 10 year-follow-up, 3.9% of subjects were defined as occasional users of benzodiazepine and 7.5% as long-term users. The analysis revealed a significant alteration of long-term memory in women whereas there was no significant association in men. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of benzodiazepine leads to specific impairment in long-term memory only in women.
Call Number Serial 265
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Author (up) Buckland, G.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Agudo, A.; Vilardell, M.; Berenguer, A.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Arriola, L.; Barricarte, A.; Basterretxea, M.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Cirera, L.; Dorronsoro, M.; Egues, N.; Huerta, J.M.; Larranaga, N.; Marin, P.; Martinez, C.; Molina, E.; Navarro, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M.-J.; Tormo, M.-J.; Moreno-Iribas, C.
Title Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC Cohort Study Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol
Volume 170 Issue 12 Pages 1518-1529
Keywords Adult; Aged; Body Weights and Measures; Coronary Disease/*epidemiology; *Diet, Mediterranean; Female; Health Behavior; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Spain/epidemiology
Abstract No known cohort study has investigated whether the Mediterranean diet can reduce incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events in a Mediterranean population. This study examined the relation between Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of incident CHD events in the 5 Spanish centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Analysis included 41,078 participants aged 29-69 years, recruited in 1992-1996 and followed up until December 2004 (mean follow-up:10.4 years). Confirmed incident fatal and nonfatal CHD events were analyzed according to Mediterranean diet adherence, measured by using an 18-unit relative Mediterranean diet score. A total of 609 participants (79% male) had a fatal or nonfatal confirmed acute myocardial infarction (n = 468) or unstable angina requiring revascularization (n = 141). After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized CHD risk factors, high compared with low relative Mediterranean diet score was associated with a significant reduction in CHD risk (hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.77). A 1-unit increase in relative Mediterranean diet score was associated with a 6% reduced risk of CHD (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.97), with similar risk reductions by sex. Mediterranean diet adherence was associated with a significantly reduced CHD risk in this Mediterranean country, supporting its role in primary prevention of CHD in healthy populations.
Call Number Serial 135
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Author (up) Burt, S.A.; Barnes, A.R.; McGue, M.; Iacono, W.G.
Title Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Developmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychol
Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1668-1677
Keywords Adolescent; Adoption/psychology; Aggression/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Causality; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Female; Genotype; Humans; Internal-External Control; Juvenile Delinquency/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Male; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Social Environment
Abstract Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.
Call Number Serial 293
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Author (up) Chen, P.; Jacobson, K.C.
Title Developmental trajectories of substance use from early adolescence to young adulthood: gender and racial/ethnic differences Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Adolesc Health
Volume 50 Issue 2 Pages 154-163
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Sex Factors; Substance-Related Disorders--ethnology, etiology; United States; Young Adult
Abstract PURPOSE: The current study examined gender and racial/ethnic (Hispanics, non-Hispanic Caucasians, non-Hispanic African Americans, and non-Hispanic Asians) differences in developmental trajectories of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use from early adolescence to young adulthood using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Participants from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 20,160) reported rates of alcohol use, heavy drinking, smoking, and marijuana use between the ages of 12 and 34 years. Data analyses were completed using longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses. RESULTS: Levels of substance use increased from early adolescence to mid-20s, and then declined thereafter. Females showed higher levels of substance use in early adolescence, although males exhibited greater changes overtime and higher levels of use in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Overall, Hispanic youth had higher initial rates of substance use, whereas Caucasian adolescents showed higher rates of change and had the highest levels of substance use from mid-adolescence through the early 30s. Racial/ethnic differences largely disappeared after age 30, except that African Americans showed higher final levels of smoking and marijuana use than the other racial/ethnic groups. Results provide evidence for both similarities and differences in general patterns of development and in gender and racial/ethnic differences across different forms of substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the current study suggest that the critical periods for intervention and prevention of substance use may differ across gender and race/ethnicity, and that future research needs to identify common and unique mechanisms underlying developmental patterns of different forms of substance use.
Call Number Serial 369
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Author (up) Chumanov, E.S.; Wall-Scheffler, C.; Heiderscheit, B.C.
Title Gender differences in walking and running on level and inclined surfaces Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) Abbreviated Journal Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon)
Volume 23 Issue 10 Pages 1260-1268
Keywords Adolescent; Biomechanical Phenomena; Buttocks/physiology; Electromyography; Exercise Test; Female; Gait/physiology; Hip Joint/*physiology; Humans; Leg/physiology; Male; Movement/physiology; Muscle Contraction/*physiology; Muscle, Skeletal/physiology; Range of Motion, Articular/physiology; Running/*physiology; *Sex Characteristics; Sex Factors; Thigh/physiology; Walking/*physiology; Young Adult
Abstract BACKGROUND: Gender differences in kinematics during running have been speculated to be a contributing factor to the lower extremity injury rate disparity between men and women. Specifically, increased non-sagittal motion of the pelvis and hip has been implicated; however it is not known if this difference exists under a variety of locomotion conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize gender differences in gait kinematics and muscle activities as a function of speed and surface incline and to determine if lower extremity anthropometrics contribute to these differences. METHODS: Whole body kinematics of 34 healthy volunteers were recorded along with electromyography of muscles on the right lower limb while each subject walked at 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8m/s and ran at 1.8, 2.7, and 3.6m/s with surface inclinations of 0%, 10%, and 15% grade. Joint angles and muscle activities were compared between genders across each speed-incline condition. Pelvis and lower extremity segment lengths were also measured and compared. FINDINGS: Females displayed greater peak hip internal rotation and adduction, as well as gluteus maximus activity for all conditions. Significant interactions (speed-gender, incline-gender) were present for the gluteus medius and vastus lateralis. Hip adduction during walking was moderately correlated to the ratio of bi-trochanteric width to leg length. INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate females display greater non-sagittal motion. Future studies are needed to better define the relationship of these differences to injury risk.
Call Number Serial 1630
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Author (up) de Waal, F.B.
Title The organization of agonistic relations within two captive groups of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) Type Journal Article
Year 1977 Publication Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie Abbreviated Journal Z Tierpsychol
Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 225-282
Keywords Age Factors; Aggression; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Competitive Behavior/*physiology; Fear; Female; Haplorhini; Humans; Macaca/*physiology; Macaca fascicularis/*physiology; Male; Sex Factors; Social Behavior; Social Dominance
Abstract The paper offers a detailed quantitative descripition of the distribution of agonistic activities over the members of two groups of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). These groups lived in captivity and were well-established: i.e. they had an extensive network of genealogical relationships. The study pays special attention to agonistic interactions with three or more participants. Its main purpose is an analysis of the way dyadic agonistic relations (e.g. dominance relations) are affected by third group members and the relations among these. The paper presents data on the ontogeny of 'dependent dominance', the 'control role' of the alpha-male, and the functions of different types of alliances.
Call Number Serial 126
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Author (up) Ehringer, M.A.; Rhee, S.H.; Young, S.; Corley, R.; Hewitt, J.K.
Title Genetic and environmental contributions to common psychopathologies of childhood and adolescence: a study of twins and their siblings Type
Year 2006 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol
Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 1-17
Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology/methods; Adult; Biometry/methods; Child; Child Psychology/methods; Colorado/epidemiology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*psychology; Humans; Internal-External Control; Male; Mental Disorders/epidemiology/*genetics/*psychology; Prevalence; Self Disclosure; Sex Factors; Siblings/*psychology; *Social Environment
Abstract We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female adolescent (12-19 years) twin pairs and 426 siblings. Prevalence statistics for past year and lifetime reports confirm differences between genders for CD, GAD, SAD, and MDD, and a lack of differences between twins and their non-twin siblings. Biometrical modeling was conducted to ascertain the relative influences of genes, and shared and non-shared environments contributing to these disorders. A more robust estimate of these parameters was obtained by including non-twin siblings. Age-specific thresholds were integrated into the analyses to appropriately model the developmental patterns of behavior. We found evidence for both genetic and non-shared environmental influences for all disorders. Shared environmental influences also seem to be important for MDD and lifetime GAD.
Call Number Serial 98
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