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Author (up) Amato, P.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author (up) Aro, H.M.; Palosaari, U.K. file  url
openurl 
  Title Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: a follow-up study Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 62 Issue 3 Pages 421-429  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Cohort Studies; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Personality Development; Self Concept; Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology  
  Abstract In a long-term study of the effects of divorce, children in a Finnish town who had completed questionnaires in school at age 16 were followed up with postal questionnaires at age 22. Depression in young adulthood was found to be slightly more common among children from divorced families. In addition, the life trajectories of children in divorced families revealed more stressful paths and more distress in both adolescence and young adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 279  
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Author (up) Bailey, A.; Le Couteur, A.; Gottesman, I.; Bolton, P.; Simonoff, E.; Yuzda, E.; Rutter, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 63-77  
  Keywords Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder/diagnosis/*genetics/psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Diseases in Twins/*genetics/psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Great Britain; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Intelligence/genetics; Male; Models, Genetic; Personality Assessment; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment; Social Environment; Twins, Dizygotic/genetics/psychology; Twins, Monozygotic/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Two previous epidemiological studies of autistic twins suggested that autism was predominantly genetically determined, although the findings with regard to a broader phenotype of cognitive, and possibly social, abnormalities were contradictory. Obstetric and perinatal hazards were also invoked as environmentally determined aetiological factors. The first British twin sample has been re-examined and a second total population sample of autistic twins recruited. In the combined sample 60% of monozygotic (MZ) pairs were concordant for autism versus no dizygotic (DZ) pairs; 92% of MZ pairs were concordant for a broader spectrum of related cognitive or social abnormalities versus 10% of DZ pairs. The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Obstetric hazards usually appear to be consequences of genetically influenced abnormal development, rather than independent aetiological factors. Few new cases had possible medical aetiologies, refuting claims that recognized disorders are common aetiological influences.  
  Call Number Serial 1112  
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Author (up) Fergusson, D.M.; Boden, J.M.; Horwood, L.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The developmental antecedents of illicit drug use: evidence from a 25-year longitudinal study Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Drug and Alcohol Dependence Abbreviated Journal Drug Alcohol Depend  
  Volume 96 Issue 1-2 Pages 165-177  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Abuse/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cohort Studies; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/psychology; Humans; Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Models, Statistical; New Zealand/epidemiology; Parents/psychology; Peer Group; Prospective Studies; Psychology, Adolescent/statistics & numerical data; Psychology, Child; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Social Adjustment; Street Drugs/*adverse effects; Substance-Related Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The present study examined the developmental antecedents of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. METHODS: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult illicit drug use and abuse/dependence; cannabis use to age 25; measures of parental adjustment; measures of exposure to childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and interparental violence; novelty-seeking; childhood and early adolescent adjustment and substance use; and affiliation with substance-using peers. RESULTS: Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence from ages 16 to 25 were significantly associated (all p values<.05) with a range of parental adjustment measures; exposure to abuse in childhood; individual factors; and measures of childhood and early adolescent adjustment. Analyses using repeated measures logistic regression models suggested that parental illicit drug use, gender, novelty-seeking, and childhood conduct disorder predicted later illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Further analyses revealed that these pathways to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were mediated via cannabis use, affiliation with substance-using peers, and alcohol use during ages 16-25. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested that the illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were associated with a range of early life circumstances and processes that put individuals at greater risk of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. However, the use of cannabis in late adolescence and early adulthood emerged as the strongest risk factor for later involvement in other illicit drugs.  
  Call Number Serial 1682  
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Author (up) Forehand, R.; Biggar, H.; Kotchick, B.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Cumulative risk across family stressors: short- and long-term effects for adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 119-128  
  Keywords Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Affective Symptoms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Analysis of Variance; Child; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology; Educational Measurement; Educational Status; *Family Relations; Female; Humans; Juvenile Delinquency/statistics & numerical data; Male; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract This study examined the relationship between number of family risk factors during adolescence and three areas of psychosocial adjustment (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement) in adolescence and 6 years later in young adulthood. Risk factors examined included parental divorce, interparental conflict, maternal physical health problems, maternal depressive mood, and mother-adolescent relationship difficulties. The findings indicated both concurrent and long-term associations between number of family risk factors and psychosocial adjustment; however, the results differed based on area of adjustment examined and whether concurrent or longitudinal data were considered. Furthermore, a steep increase in adjustment difficulties occurred when number of risk factors increased from three to four. The results are discussed in the framework of four hypotheses which were tested, and clinical implications are delineated.  
  Call Number Serial 289  
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Author (up) Johnston, J.R.; Kline, M.; Tschann, J.M. file  url
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  Title Ongoing postdivorce conflict: effects on children of joint custody and frequent access Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Orthopsychiatry  
  Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 576-592  
  Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Custody/*legislation & jurisprudence; Child Reactive Disorders/*psychology; Child Welfare; Child, Preschool; Communication; *Conflict (Psychology); Divorce/*legislation & jurisprudence; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Marriage; *Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development; San Francisco; Social Adjustment  
  Abstract Parental conflict and children's behavioral and social adjustment were measured at two periods in 100 families entrenched in custody and visitation disputes. More frequent access to both parents was associated with more emotional and behavioral problems in the children; different effects were noted for boys and girls.  
  Call Number Serial 284  
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Author (up) Kelly, J.B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 8 Pages 963-973  
  Keywords Adult; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/*psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Domestic Violence/*psychology; Humans; Marriage/*psychology; *Social Adjustment  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To review important research of the past decade in divorce, marital conflict, and children's adjustment and to describe newer divorce interventions. METHOD: Key empirical studies from 1990 to 1999 were surveyed regarding the impact of marital conflict, parental violence, and divorce on the psychological adjustment of children, adolescents, and young adults. RESULTS: Recent studies investigating the impact of divorce on children have found that many of the psychological symptoms seen in children of divorce can be accounted for in the years before divorce. The past decade also has seen a large increase in studies assessing complex variables within the marriage which profoundly affect child and adolescent adjustment, including marital conflict and violence and related parenting behaviors. This newer literature provides provocative and helpful information for forensic and clinical psychiatrists in their work with both married and divorcing families. CONCLUSIONS: While children of divorced parents, as a group, have more adjustment problems than do children of never-divorced parents, the view that divorce per se is the major cause of these symptoms must be reconsidered in light of newer research documenting the negative effects of troubled marriages on children.  
  Call Number Serial 285  
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Author (up) Levenson, J.S.; D'Amora, D.A.; Hern, A.L. file  url
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  Title Megan's Law and its impact on community re-entry for sex offenders Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Behavioral Sciences & the law Abbreviated Journal Behav Sci Law  
  Volume 25 Issue 4 Pages 587-602  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Child; Child Abuse, Sexual/*legislation & jurisprudence/prevention & control; Connecticut; Data Collection; Female; Humans; Indiana; Male; *Mandatory Reporting; Middle Aged; Registries; *Residence Characteristics; *Social Adjustment  
  Abstract Community notification, known as “Megan's Law,” provides the public with information about known sex offenders in an effort to assist parents and potential victims to protect themselves from dangerous predators. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of community notification on the lives of registered sex offenders. Two hundred and thirty-nine sex offenders in Connecticut and Indiana were surveyed. The negative consequences that occurred with the greatest frequency included job loss, threats and harassment, property damage, and suffering of household members. A minority of sex offenders reported housing disruption or physical violence following community notification. The majority experienced psychosocial distress such as depression, shame, and hopelessness. Recommendations are made for community notification policies that rely on empirically derived risk assessment classification systems in order to better inform the public about sex offenders' danger while minimizing the obstacles that interfere with successful community reintegration.  
  Call Number Serial 1964  
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Author (up) Steinberg, L.; Lamborn, S.D.; Darling, N.; Mounts, N.S.; Dornbusch, S.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 65 Issue 3 Pages 754-770  
  Keywords Achievement; Adolescent; *Authoritarianism; *Family; Female; Humans; Male; Parenting; *Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology  
  Abstract In a previous report, we demonstrated that adolescents' adjustment varies as a function of their parents' style (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, neglectful). This 1-year follow-up was conducted in order to examine whether the observed differences are maintained over time. In 1987, an ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample of approximately 2,300 14-18-year-olds provided information used to classify the adolescents' families into 1 of 4 parenting style groups. That year, and again 1 year later, the students completed a battery of standardized instruments tapping psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and behavior problems. Differences in adjustment associated with variations in parenting are either maintained or increase over time. However, whereas the benefits of authoritative parenting are largely in the maintenance of previous levels of high adjustment, the deleterious consequences of neglectful parenting continue to accumulate.  
  Call Number Serial 1195  
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