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Author (up) Bailey, A.; Le Couteur, A.; Gottesman, I.; Bolton, P.; Simonoff, E.; Yuzda, E.; Rutter, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 63-77  
  Keywords Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder/diagnosis/*genetics/psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Diseases in Twins/*genetics/psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Great Britain; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Intelligence/genetics; Male; Models, Genetic; Personality Assessment; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment; Social Environment; Twins, Dizygotic/genetics/psychology; Twins, Monozygotic/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Two previous epidemiological studies of autistic twins suggested that autism was predominantly genetically determined, although the findings with regard to a broader phenotype of cognitive, and possibly social, abnormalities were contradictory. Obstetric and perinatal hazards were also invoked as environmentally determined aetiological factors. The first British twin sample has been re-examined and a second total population sample of autistic twins recruited. In the combined sample 60% of monozygotic (MZ) pairs were concordant for autism versus no dizygotic (DZ) pairs; 92% of MZ pairs were concordant for a broader spectrum of related cognitive or social abnormalities versus 10% of DZ pairs. The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Obstetric hazards usually appear to be consequences of genetically influenced abnormal development, rather than independent aetiological factors. Few new cases had possible medical aetiologies, refuting claims that recognized disorders are common aetiological influences.  
  Call Number Serial 1112  
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Author (up) Bornovalova, M.A.; Hicks, B.M.; Iacono, W.G.; McGue, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Familial transmission and heritability of childhood disruptive disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The American Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Am J Psychiatry  
  Volume 167 Issue 9 Pages 1066-1074  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Antisocial Personality Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/*epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Child; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology/*statistics & numerical data; Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Diseases in Twins/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics; Family/psychology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Humans; Male; Minnesota/epidemiology; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Risk Factors; Social Environment; Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is substantial evidence of a link between parental substance use disorders and antisocial behavior and childhood disruptive disorders in offspring, but it is unclear whether this transmission is specific to particular disorders or if a general liability accounts for familial resemblance. The authors examined whether the association between parental externalizing disorders and childhood disruptive disorders in preadolescent offspring is a result of the transmission of general or disorder-specific liabilities and estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to variation in these general and specific liability indicators. METHOD: Participants were 1,069 families consisting of 11-year-old twins and their biological mother and father. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously estimate the general and specific transmission effects of four parental externalizing disorders (conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence) on childhood disruptive disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder). RESULTS: Parent-child resemblance was accounted for by the transmission of a general liability to externalizing disorders, and this general liability was highly heritable. Specific effects were also detected, but for sibling rather than parental transmission. Specific genetic and nonshared environmental effects were detected for each childhood disruptive disorder, but only conduct disorder exhibited a significant shared environmental effect. CONCLUSIONS: A highly heritable general liability accounts for the parent-child transmission of externalizing psychopathology from parents to their preadolescent offspring. This general liability should be a focus of research for both etiology and intervention.  
  Call Number Serial 97  
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Author (up) Buchanan, C.M.; Maccoby, E.E.; Dornbusch, S.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Caught between parents: adolescents' experience in divorced homes Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 62 Issue 5 Pages 1008-1029  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/psychology; Anxiety/psychology; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Male; *Parent-Child Relations; Parenting/psychology; *Personality Development; Social Environment  
  Abstract This study examined adolescents' feelings of being caught between parents to see whether this construct helps to explain (1) variability in their postdivorce adjustment and (2) associations between family/child characteristics and adolescent adjustment. Adolescents 10 to 18 years old (N = 522) were interviewed by telephone 4 1/2 years after their parents' separation. Feeling caught between parents was related to high parental conflict and hostility and low parental cooperation. Being close to both parents was associated with low feelings of being caught. The relation between time spent with each parent and feeling caught depended on the coparenting relationship. Adolescents in dual residence were especially likely to feel caught when parents were in high conflict, and especially unlikely to feel caught when parents cooperated. Feeling caught was related to poor adjustment outcomes. Parental conflict was only related to adjustment outcomes indirectly, through adolescents' feelings of being caught.  
  Call Number Serial 281  
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Author (up) Burt, S.A.; Barnes, A.R.; McGue, M.; Iacono, W.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Parental divorce and adolescent delinquency: ruling out the impact of common genes Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Developmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Dev Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1668-1677  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adoption/psychology; Aggression/psychology; Antisocial Personality Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Causality; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/*genetics/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Female; Genotype; Humans; Internal-External Control; Juvenile Delinquency/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Male; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; *Social Environment  
  Abstract Although the well-documented association between parental divorce and adolescent delinquency is generally assumed to be environmental (i.e., causal) in origin, genetic mediation is also possible. Namely, the behavior problems often found in children of divorce could derive from similar pathology in the parents, pathology that is both heritable and increases the risk that the parent will experience divorce. To test these alternative hypotheses, the authors made use of a novel design that incorporated timing of divorce in a sample of 610 adoptive and biological families. They reasoned that if genes common to parent and child mediate this association, nonadopted youth should manifest increased delinquency in the presence of parental divorce even if the divorce preceded their birth (i.e., was from a prior parental relationship). However, should the association be environmental in origin, the authors reasoned that adolescents should manifest increased delinquency only in response to divorce exposure, and this association should not vary by adoption status. Results firmly supported the latter, suggesting that it is the experience of parental divorce, and not common genes, that drives the association between divorce and adolescent delinquency.  
  Call Number Serial 293  
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Author (up) Eagly, A.H.; Karau, S.J.; Makhijani, M.G. file  url
openurl 
  Title Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages 125-145  
  Keywords Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Culture; *Social Behavior; Social Environment  
  Abstract This article presents a synthesis of research on the relative effectiveness of women and men who occupy leadership and managerial roles. Aggregated over the organizational and laboratory experimental studies in the sample, male and female leaders were equally effective. However, consistent with the assumption that the congruence of leadership roles with leaders' gender enhances effectiveness, men were more effective than women in roles that were defined in more masculine terms, and women were more effective than men in roles that were defined in less masculine terms. Also, men were more effective than women to the extent that leader and subordinate roles were male-dominated numerically. These and other findings are discussed from the perspective of social-role theory of sex differences in social behavior as well as from alternative perspectives.  
  Call Number Serial 272  
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Author (up) Ehringer, M.A.; Rhee, S.H.; Young, S.; Corley, R.; Hewitt, J.K. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Genetic and environmental contributions to common psychopathologies of childhood and adolescence: a study of twins and their siblings Type
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology/methods; Adult; Biometry/methods; Child; Child Psychology/methods; Colorado/epidemiology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*psychology; Humans; Internal-External Control; Male; Mental Disorders/epidemiology/*genetics/*psychology; Prevalence; Self Disclosure; Sex Factors; Siblings/*psychology; *Social Environment  
  Abstract We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female adolescent (12-19 years) twin pairs and 426 siblings. Prevalence statistics for past year and lifetime reports confirm differences between genders for CD, GAD, SAD, and MDD, and a lack of differences between twins and their non-twin siblings. Biometrical modeling was conducted to ascertain the relative influences of genes, and shared and non-shared environments contributing to these disorders. A more robust estimate of these parameters was obtained by including non-twin siblings. Age-specific thresholds were integrated into the analyses to appropriately model the developmental patterns of behavior. We found evidence for both genetic and non-shared environmental influences for all disorders. Shared environmental influences also seem to be important for MDD and lifetime GAD.  
  Call Number Serial 98  
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Author (up) Hetherington, E.M.; Stanley-Hagan, M.; Anderson, E.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Marital transitions. A child's perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication The American Psychologist Abbreviated Journal Am Psychol  
  Volume 44 Issue 2 Pages 303-312  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Child; *Child Development; *Divorce; Humans; Life Change Events; *Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development; *Social Environment  
  Abstract Despite a recent leveling off of the divorce rate, almost half of the children born in the last decade will experience the divorce of their parents, and most of these children will also experience the remarriage of their parents. Most children initially experience their parents' marital rearrangements as stressful; however, children's responses to their parents marital transitions are diverse. Whereas some exhibit remarkable resiliency and in the long term may actually be enhanced by coping with these transitions, others suffer sustained developmental delays or disruptions. Others appear to adapt well in the early stages of family reorganizations but show delayed effects that emerge at a later time, especially in adolescence. The long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se. In recent years, researchers have begun to move away from the view that single-parent and remarried families are atypical or pathogenic families and are focusing on the diversity of children's responses and to the factors that facilitate or disrupt the development and adjustment of children experiencing their parents' marital transitions.  
  Call Number Serial 283  
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Author (up) Hetherington, M.M.; Anderson, A.S.; Norton, G.N.M.; Newson, L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 88 Issue 4-5 Pages 498-505  
  Keywords Adult; Affect/physiology; Appetite; Dietary Fats; Eating/physiology/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; Food; Humans; Hunger/physiology; Male; Memory/physiology; *Social Environment; Social Facilitation; Surveys and Questionnaires; Television  
  Abstract Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers.  
  Call Number Serial 1645  
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Author (up) Loveland, K.A.; Tunali, B. file  url
openurl 
  Title Social scripts for conversational interactions in autism and Down syndrome Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Autism Dev Disord  
  Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 177-186  
  Keywords Adolescent; Affect; Autistic Disorder/*diagnosis/psychology; Awareness; Child; Child, Preschool; Down Syndrome/*diagnosis/psychology; Female; Humans; *Interpersonal Relations; Language Tests; Male; Nonverbal Communication; Social Behavior; *Social Environment; Speech Intelligibility; *Verbal Behavior  
  Abstract The ability of high-functioning verbal individuals with autism or Down syndrome (DS) to respond appropriately to conversational “social scripts” involving responding to another person's distress was investigated. Subjects were 13 persons with autism and 13 with DS, matched on verbal mental age. During a “tea party” situation, subjects were each told about an examiner's unhappy personal experience (e.g., a stolen wallet). If the subject did not produce an acceptable response after several probes (e.g., “My money's gone; now I can't buy groceries”), the other examiner modeled a sympathetic response and more probes were administered. Subjects with DS gave a significantly greater percentage of relevant suggestions and sympathetic comments, whereas subjects with autism gave a significantly greater percentage of responses relating only to the tea party. Significantly more subjects with autism than DS required modeling. Although a smaller percentage of subjects in the autism group than the DS group exhibited improvement after modeling, some subjects with autism were able to improve, suggesting that they understood some aspects of the social situation (the social script) but needed help formulating an appropriate response.  
  Call Number Serial 971  
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Author (up) Mallett, K.A.; Varvil-Weld, L.; Turrisi, R.; Read, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title An examination of college students' willingness to experience consequences as a unique predictor of alcohol problems Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors Abbreviated Journal Psychol Addict Behav  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 41-47  
  Keywords Adolescent; Alcohol Drinking/*prevention & control; Alcoholism/*prevention & control; *Attitude; Female; Humans; Male; Peer Group; Questionnaires; *Social Environment; Students; Universities  
  Abstract The focus of the study was to examine (1) the unique variance between willingness to experience specific consequences (e.g., vomit) and reported experience of the consequence after controlling for drinking, and (2) the relationships between consequence specific constructs (attitudes and norms) and willingness to experience specific consequences in the context of a structural equation model. Freshmen students (n = 167) from a large northeastern university were randomly selected to participate. Results indicated willingness to experience consequences accounted for significant variance across consequence outcomes controlling for drinking. Significant relationships were observed between consequence specific constructs (attitudes and norms) and students' willingness to experience consequences. Findings provide empirical support that alcohol-related consequences have multiple determinants and are not only a function of alcohol consumption. Prevention efforts may benefit from a more comprehensive approach that includes both drinking and consequence-specific constructs as targets of change.  
  Call Number Serial 203  
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