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Author (up) Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; McLaughlin, M.R. file  url
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  Title Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Water Research Abbreviated Journal Water Res  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 96-103  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Bacteria/drug effects/*genetics/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics; Manure/*microbiology; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; *Microbiota; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics/metabolism; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Southeastern United States; Sus scrofa; Waste Water/*microbiology; Antibiotic resistance; Campylobacter; Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO); Lagoon wastewater; Salmonella; Swine; Microbiome  
  Abstract The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future “downstream” implications from both an environmental and public health perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 1943  
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Author (up) Lapenda, J.C.; Silva, P.A.; Vicalvi, M.C.; Sena, K.X.F.R.; Nascimento, S.C. file  url
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  Title Antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin isolated from Serratia marcescens UFPEDA 398 Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal World J Microbiol Biotechnol  
  Volume 31 Issue 2 Pages 399-406  
  Keywords Acinetobacter/drug effects; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/growth & development; Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests; Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects; Escherichia coli/drug effects; Prodigiosin/chemistry/*pharmacology; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects; Serratia marcescens/*chemistry; Spectrophotometry; Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects; Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects  
  Abstract Prodigiosin is an alkaloid and natural red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin has antimicrobial, antimalarial and antitumor properties and induces apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes. These properties have piqued the interest of researchers in the fields of medicine, pharmaceutics and different industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin against pathogenic micro-organisms. The red pigments produced by S. marcescens exhibited absorption at 534 nm, Rf of 0.59 and molecular weight of 323 m/z. Antimicrobial activity was tested against oxacillin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Acinetobacter sp. and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. The standard antibiotics employed were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and oxacillin. The disc-diffusion tests demonstrated significant inhibition zones for S. aureus (35 +/- 0.6), E. faecalis (22 +/- 1.0) and S. pyogenes (14 +/- 0.6). However, prodigiosin showed resistance to E. coli, P. aeruginosa and acinetobacter, where no significant formation of inhibitory halos were observed. We determined the inhibitory minimum concentrations and bactericidal for 20 strains of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA). The pattern was the antibiotic oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations observed ranged from 1, 2 and 4.0 mug/mL, respectively, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged from 2, 4, 8 and 16 mug/mL. The S. marcescens prodigiosin produced by showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect showing promising antimicrobial activity and suggesting future studies regarding its applicability in antibiotics therapies directed ORSA.  
  Call Number Serial 1672  
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