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Author (up) Dilsaver, S.C.; Alessi, N.E. file  url
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  Title Antipsychotic withdrawal symptoms: phenomenology and pathophysiology Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Psychiatr Scand  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 241-246  
  Keywords Antipsychotic Agents/*adverse effects; Brain/drug effects; Humans; Psychotic Disorders/*drug therapy; Receptors, Neurotransmitter/drug effects; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/*physiopathology  
  Abstract The authors review the literature discribing non-dyskinetic antipsychotic withdrawal phenomena. Withdrawal of these agents can cause nausea, emesis, anorexia, diarrhea, rhinorrhea, diaphoresis, myalgia, paresthesia, anxiety, agitation, restlessness, and insomnia. Psychotic relapse is often presaged by increased anxiety, agitation, restlessness and insomnia, but the temporal relationship of these prodromal symptoms to reduction in the dosage or discontinuation of neuroleptics distinguishes them from the effects of abrupt withdrawal.  
  Call Number Serial 213  
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Author (up) Nikodijevic, O.; Jacobson, K.A.; Daly, J.W. file  url
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  Title Locomotor activity in mice during chronic treatment with caffeine and withdrawal Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 199-216  
  Keywords 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine/pharmacology; Adenosine/pharmacology; Animals; Caffeine/*pharmacology; Dopamine Agents/pharmacology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Male; Mice; Motor Activity/*drug effects; Parasympathomimetics/pharmacology; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/*physiopathology; Xanthines/pharmacology  
  Abstract Chronic ingestion of caffeine by mice caused a marked reduction in locomotor exploratory activity. At least 4 days of withdrawal were required to restore activity to normal levels. Stimulatory effects of injected caffeine were lower in chronically treated mice and the biphasic dose-response (stimulatory followed by depressant) curve for injected caffeine was left shifted. Seven days of withdrawal were required before the dose-response curve to caffeine was identical to that of control mice. The depressant effects of a potent xanthine phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 1,3-dipropyl-7-methylxanthine, were blunted in caffeine-treated mice. The depressant effects of A1- and A2-selective adenosine analogs were enhanced after chronic caffeine. There was little or no effect of chronic caffeine on the stimulatory effects of dopaminergic agents (amphetamine, caffeine), while both depressant and stimulatory effects of cholinergic agents (nicotine, oxotremorine, scopolamine) were reduced. The results indicate that chronic caffeine affects functions of adenosine and cholinergic receptors related to regulation of locomotor exploratory activity.  
  Call Number Serial 356  
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