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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Allen, S.L.; Lundberg, A.S. file  url
  Title Amonafide: a potential role in treating acute myeloid leukemia Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs Abbreviated Journal Expert Opin Investig Drugs  
  Volume 20 Issue 7 Pages 995-1003  
  Keywords Animals; Antineoplastic Agents--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Clinical Trials as Topic--methods; DNA Topoisomerases, Type II--metabolism; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Enzyme Inhibitors--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Humans; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute--drug therapy, enzymology, mortality; Naphthalimides--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Survival Rate--trends; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Amonafide is a novel topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitor and DNA intercalator that induces apoptotic signaling by blocking the binding of Topo II to DNA. Amonafide retains cytotoxic activity even in the presence of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR), a major contributor to clinical treatment failure. AREAS COVERED: In vitro, Pgp-mediated transport (efflux) of amonafide from myeloblasts obtained from patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) was significantly less than efflux of daunorubicin. Amonafide has shown efficacy in patients with sAML, as well as in patients with poor prognostic characteristics such as older age and unfavorable cytogenetics, all associated with MDR. Improved antileukemic activity is observed when amonafide is given together with cytarabine, rather than as monotherapy, with a complete remission rate of approximately 40% in a recent Phase II trial in sAML. The efficacy of amonafide was maintained among poor-risk subsets of patients, including older patients and patients who had previous myelodysplastic syndrome or previous leukemogenic therapy. The safety profile was acceptable and manageable. EXPERT OPINION: Amonafide plus cytarabine may have clinical utility in patients with sAML and in other poor-risk subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Ongoing trials will help define the role for amonafide in the treatment of poor-risk AML.  
  Call Number Serial 199  
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Author (up) Anderson, J.W.; Nicolosi, R.J.; Borzelleca, J.F. file  url
  Title Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Abbreviated Journal Food Chem Toxicol  
  Volume 43 Issue 2 Pages 187-201  
  Keywords Administration, Oral; Animals; Blood Glucose/*drug effects/metabolism; Clinical Trials as Topic; Glucosamine/*adverse effects/pharmacokinetics/therapeutic use; Humans; Infusions, Parenteral; Lethal Dose 50; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Osteoarthritis/*drug therapy; Safety; Toxicity Tests; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract Glucosamine is widely used to relieve symptoms from osteoarthritis. Its safety and effects on glucose metabolism are critically evaluated in this review. The LD50 of oral glucosamine in animals is approximately 8000 mg/kg with no adverse effects at 2700 mg/kg for 12 months. Because altered glucose metabolism can be associated with parenteral administration of large doses of glucosamine in animals and with high concentrations in in vitro studies, we critically evaluated the clinical importance of these effects. Oral administration of large doses of glucosamine in animals has no documented effects on glucose metabolism. In vitro studies demonstrating effects of glucosamine on glucose metabolism have used concentrations that are 100-200 times higher than tissue levels expected with oral glucosamine administration in humans. We reviewed clinical trial data for 3063 human subjects. Fasting plasma glucose values decreased slightly for subjects after oral glucosamine for approximately 66 weeks. There were no adverse effects of oral glucosamine administration on blood, urine or fecal parameters. Side effects were significantly less common with glucosamine than placebo or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). In contrast to NSAID, no serious or fatal side effects have been reported for glucosamine. Our critical evaluation indicates that glucosamine is safe under current conditions of use and does not affect glucose metabolism.  
  Call Number Serial 1749  
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Author (up) Burg, M.M.; Barefoot, J.; Berkman, L.; Catellier, D.J.; Czajkowski, S.; Saab, P.; Huber, M.; DeLillo, V.; Mitchell, P.; Skala, J.; Taylor, C.B. file  url
  Title Low perceived social support and post-myocardial infarction prognosis in the enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease clinical trial: the effects of treatment Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Psychosomatic Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychosom Med  
  Volume 67 Issue 6 Pages 879-888  
  Keywords Cognitive Therapy; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity; Coronary Disease/*drug therapy/mortality; Depressive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Male; Mortality; Myocardial Infarction/*diagnosis/epidemiology/therapy; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Prognosis; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk Factors; Secondary Prevention; *Social Support; Spouses/statistics & numerical data; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: In post hoc analyses, to examine in low perceived social support (LPSS) patients enrolled in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) clinical trial (n = 1503), the pattern of social support following myocardial infarction (MI), the impact of psychosocial intervention on perceived support, the relationship of perceived support at the time of MI to subsequent death and recurrent MI, and the relationship of change in perceived support 6 months after MI to subsequent mortality. METHODS: Partner status (partner, no partner) and score (<12 = low support; >12 = moderate support) on the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) were used post hoc to define four levels of risk. The resulting 4 LPSS risk groups were compared on baseline characteristics, changes in social support, and medical outcomes to a group of concurrently enrolled acute myocardial infarction patients without depression or LPSS (MI comparison group, n = 408). Effects of treatment assignment on LPSS and death/recurrent MI were also examined. RESULTS: All 4 LPSS risk groups demonstrated improvement in perceived support, regardless of treatment assignment, with a significant treatment effect only seen in the LPSS risk group with no partner and moderate support at baseline. During an average 29-month follow-up, the combined end point of death/nonfatal MI was 10% in the MI comparison group and 23% in the ENRICHD LPSS patients; LPSS conferred a greater risk in unadjusted and adjusted models (HR = 1.74-2.39). Change in ESSI score and/or improvement in perceived social support were not found to predict subsequent mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline LPSS predicted death/recurrent MI in the ENRICHD cohort, independent of treatment assignment. Intervention effects indicated a partner surrogacy role for the interventionist and the need for a moderate level of support at baseline for the intervention to be effective.  
  Call Number Serial 2057  
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Author (up) Christiansen, S.; Oettingen, G.; Dahme, B.; Klinger, R. file  url
  Title A short goal-pursuit intervention to improve physical capacity: a randomized clinical trial in chronic back pain patients Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 149 Issue 3 Pages 444-452  
  Keywords Adult; Chronic Disease; Cognitive Therapy/*methods; Exercise Therapy/*methods; Exercise Tolerance/*physiology; Female; *Goals; Humans; Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional; Low Back Pain/physiopathology/psychology/*rehabilitation; Male; Middle Aged; Muscle Weakness/physiopathology/psychology/*rehabilitation; Pain Measurement/methods; Physical Fitness/*physiology; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract The present study tested a short intervention using goal-pursuit strategies to increase physical capacity in pain patients. Sixty chronic back pain patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Both groups followed a 3-week conventional back pain program at an outpatient back pain center. Instead of routine treatment, the intervention group received a one-hour intervention consisting of a combination of (a) a goal-setting strategy (i.e., mental contrasting, MC) aimed at commitment to improved physical capacity, (b) a short cognitive behavioral therapy-oriented problem-solving approach (CBT) to help patients overcome the obstacles associated with improving physical capacity, and (c) a goal-pursuit strategy, i.e., implementation intentions (II) aimed at performing physical exercise regularly. At two follow-ups (3 weeks after discharge and 3 months after returning home) the MCII-CBT group had increased its physical capacity significantly more than the control group as measured by both behavioral measures (ergometer, lifting) and subjective ratings. Findings are discussed with relation to the use of the intervention as a specific treatment to increase chronic pain patients' motivation to be physically active.  
  Call Number Serial 2070  
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Author (up) Clemson, L.; Fiatarone Singh, M.A.; Bundy, A.; Cumming, R.G.; Manollaras, K.; O'Loughlin, P.; Black, D. file  url
  Title Integration of balance and strength training into daily life activity to reduce rate of falls in older people (the LiFE study): randomised parallel trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) Abbreviated Journal Bmj  
  Volume 345 Issue Pages e4547  
  Keywords Accidental Falls--prevention & control; Activities of Daily Living; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Female; Humans; Life Style; Male; Patient Compliance; Postural Balance--physiology; Resistance Training--methods; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a lifestyle integrated approach to balance and strength training is effective in reducing the rate of falls in older, high risk people living at home. DESIGN: Three arm, randomised parallel trial; assessments at baseline and after six and 12 months. Randomisation done by computer generated random blocks, stratified by sex and fall history and concealed by an independent secure website. SETTING: Residents in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged 70 years or older who had two or more falls or one injurious fall in past 12 months, recruited from Veteran's Affairs databases and general practice databases. Exclusion criteria were moderate to severe cognitive problems, inability to ambulate independently, neurological conditions that severely influenced gait and mobility, resident in a nursing home or hostel, or any unstable or terminal illness that would affect ability to do exercises. INTERVENTIONS: Three home based interventions: Lifestyle integrated Functional Exercise (LiFE) approach (n=107; taught principles of balance and strength training and integrated selected activities into everyday routines), structured programme (n=105; exercises for balance and lower limb strength, done three times a week), sham control programme (n=105; gentle exercise). LiFE and structured groups received five sessions with two booster visits and two phone calls; controls received three home visits and six phone calls. Assessments made at baseline and after six and 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary measure: rate of falls over 12 months, collected by self report. Secondary measures: static and dynamic balance; ankle, knee and hip strength; balance self efficacy; daily living activities; participation; habitual physical activity; quality of life; energy expenditure; body mass index; and fat free mass. RESULTS: After 12 months' follow-up, we recorded 172, 193, and 224 falls in the LiFE, structured exercise, and control groups, respectively. The overall incidence of falls in the LiFE programme was 1.66 per person years, compared with 1.90 in the structured programme and 2.28 in the control group. We saw a significant reduction of 31% in the rate of falls for the LiFE programme compared with controls (incidence rate ratio 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.99)); the corresponding difference between the structured group and controls was non-significant (0.81 (0.56 to 1.17)). Static balance on an eight level hierarchy scale, ankle strength, function, and participation were significantly better in the LiFE group than in controls. LiFE and structured groups had a significant and moderate improvement in dynamic balance, compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: The LiFE programme provides an alternative to traditional exercise to consider for fall prevention. Functional based exercise should be a focus for interventions to protect older, high risk people from falling and to improve and maintain functional capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12606000025538.  
  Call Number Serial 404  
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Author (up) El Amki, M.; Lerouet, D.; Coqueran, B.; Curis, E.; Orset, C.; Vivien, D.; Plotkine, M.; Marchand-Leroux, C.; Margaill, I. file  url
  Title Experimental modeling of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator effects after ischemic stroke Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Experimental Neurology Abbreviated Journal Exp Neurol  
  Volume 238 Issue 2 Pages 138-144  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Brain Edema/etiology/prevention & control; Brain Infarction/etiology/prevention & control; *Disease Models, Animal; Drug Administration Schedule; Fibrinolytic Agents/*therapeutic use; Hemorrhage/drug therapy/etiology; Humans; Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/*complications; Male; Mice; Nervous System Diseases/etiology; Random Allocation; Stroke/complications/*drug therapy/*etiology; Time Factors; Tissue Plasminogen Activator/*therapeutic use; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is currently the only approved drug for ischemic stroke treatment, with a dose of 0.9 mg/kg. Since the fibrinolytic activity of rt-PA has been reported in vitro to be 10-fold less potent in rodent than in human, in most in vivo experimental models of cerebral ischemia rt-PA is used at 10 mg/kg. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the “human” (0.9 mg/kg) and “rodent” (10 mg/kg) doses of rt-PA given at an early or a delayed time point in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by thrombin injection into the left middle cerebral artery of mice. Rt-PA (0.9 or 10 mg/kg) was intravenously administered 30 min or 4 h after the onset of ischemia. The degree of reperfusion after rt-PA was followed for 90 min after its injection. The neurological deficit, infarct volumes, edema and hemorrhagic transformations (HT) were assessed at 24 h. Reperfusion was complete after early administration of rt-PA at 10 mg/kg but partial with rt-PA at 0.9 mg/kg. Both doses given at 4 h induced partial reperfusion. Early administration of both doses of rt-PA reduced the neurological deficit, lesion volume and brain edema, without modifying post-ischemic HT. Injected at 4 h, rt-PA at 0.9 and 10 mg/kg lost its beneficial effects and worsened HT. In conclusion, in the mouse thrombin stroke model, the “human” dose of rt-PA exhibits effects close to those observed in clinic.  
  Call Number Serial 925  
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Author (up) Galatzer-Levy, I.R.; Ankri, Y.; Freedman, S.; Israeli-Shalev, Y.; Roitman, P.; Gilad, M.; Shalev, A.Y. file  url
  Title Early PTSD symptom trajectories: persistence, recovery, and response to treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 8 Pages e70084  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Cognitive Therapy/methods; Cohort Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Disease Progression; Female; Humans; Israel; Likelihood Functions; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Statistical; Psychometrics; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*diagnosis/*therapy; Symptom Assessment; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract CONTEXT: Uncovering heterogeneities in the progression of early PTSD symptoms can improve our understanding of the disorder's pathogenesis and prophylaxis. OBJECTIVES: To describe discrete symptom trajectories and examine their relevance for preventive interventions. DESIGN: Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM) of data from a randomized controlled study of early treatment. LGMM identifies latent longitudinal trajectories by exploring discrete mixture distributions underlying observable data. SETTING: Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. PARTICIPANTS: Adult survivors of potentially traumatic events consecutively admitted to the hospital's emergency department (ED) were assessed ten days and one-, five-, nine- and fifteen months after ED admission. Participants with data at ten days and at least two additional assessments (n = 957) were included; 125 received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) between one and nine months. APPROACH: We used LGMM to identify latent parameters of symptom progression and tested the effect of CBT on these parameters. CBT consisted of 12 weekly sessions of either cognitive therapy (n = 41) or prolonged exposure (PE, n = 49), starting 29.8+/-5.7 days after ED admission, or delayed PE (n = 35) starting at 151.8+/-42.4 days. CBT effectively reduced PTSD symptoms in the entire sample. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Latent trajectories of PTSD symptoms; effects of CBT on these trajectories. RESULTS: THREE TRAJECTORIES WERE IDENTIFIED: Rapid Remitting (rapid decrease in symptoms from 1- to 5-months; 56% of the sample), Slow Remitting (progressive decrease in symptoms over 15 months; 27%) and Non-Remitting (persistently elevated symptoms; 17%). CBT accelerated the recovery of the Slow Remitting class but did not affect the other classes. CONCLUSIONS: The early course of PTSD symptoms is characterized by distinct and diverging response patterns that are centrally relevant to understanding the disorder and preventing its occurrence. Studies of the pathogenesis of PTSD may benefit from using clustered symptom trajectories as their dependent variables.  
  Call Number Serial 1307  
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Author (up) Hodges, J.; Oei, T.P.S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Would Confucius benefit from psychotherapy? The compatibility of cognitive behaviour therapy and Chinese values Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Behaviour Research and Therapy Abbreviated Journal Behav Res Ther  
  Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages 901-914  
  Keywords *Asian Continental Ancestry Group; China; Cognition; Cognitive Therapy/*methods; Cross-Cultural Comparison; *Culture; Humans; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract The purpose of the present paper is to explore the conceptual compatibility between cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and the common values of Chinese Culture. In order to address such a question, the distinctive processes attributed to CBT (e.g., teaching of skills, emphasis on homework, cognitive processes, present/future focus), as summarized in the meta-analysis by Blagys and Hilsenroth [(2002). Distinctive activities of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of the comparative psychotherapy process literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 671-706], and the core values of Chinese Culture, determined through an integration of The Hofstede Project, [Hofstede, G.H. (1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work related values. Beverly Hills: Sage]. The Chinese Value Survey [Chinese Culture Connection (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143-164]. The Schwartz Value Survey [Schwartz, S.H. (1994). Cultural dimensions of values: Towards an understanding of national differences. In Kim, U., Trandis, H.C., Katiticibasi, C., Choi, S.C., & Yoon, G. (eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method and application (pp. 85-119). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage] were used. A strong degree of compatibility between the two was found and it is argued that rather than developing new indigenized therapies, with some structural changes to the processes of CBT, this therapy can be effective for Chinese clients. It is further proposed that Chinese clients may benefit from challenging their irrational cognitions that are bound up in their strict adherence to social norms. Future recommendations for increasing the compatibility of CBT to Chinese culture are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 455  
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Author (up) IFNB Multiple Sclerosis Study Group file  url
  Title Interferon beta-1b is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. I. Clinical results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The IFNB Multiple Sclerosis Study Group Type
  Year 1993 Publication Neurology Abbreviated Journal Neurology  
  Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 655-661  
  Keywords Adult; Double-Blind Method; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Female; Humans; Interferon-beta/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Lymphopenia/etiology; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Middle Aged; Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis/*therapy; Neurologic Examination; Recurrence; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract We report a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of interferon beta-1b (IFNB) in 372 ambulatory patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Entry criteria included an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 0 to 5.5 and at least two exacerbations in the previous 2 years. One-third of the patients received placebo, one-third 1.6 million international units (MIU) of IFNB, and one-third 8 MIU of IFNB, self-administered by subcutaneous injections every other day. The primary end points were differences in exacerbation rates and proportion of patients remaining exacerbation-free. The annual exacerbation rate for patients receiving placebo was 1.27; for 1.6 MIU IFNB, 1.17; and for 8 MIU IFNB, 0.84 after 2 years. Exacerbation rates were significantly lower in both treatment groups compared with the placebo group (8 MIU versus placebo, p = 0.0001; 1.6 MIU versus placebo, p = 0.0101; and 8 MIU versus 1.6 MIU, p = 0.0086), suggesting a dosage effect. The reduction in exacerbation severity in the 8 MIU group was attributable to a twofold reduction in the frequency of moderate and severe attacks. More patients in the 8 MIU group (n = 36) were exacerbation-free at 2 years compared with the placebo group (n = 18; p = 0.007). EDSS scores changed little from baseline in both the placebo and treatment arms. Accordingly, a significant change in disability could not be discerned in this trial. Finally, in serial MRIs, MS activity was significantly less in the high-dose IFNB group.  
  Call Number Serial 1003  
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