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Author (up) Borre, Y.E.; Moloney, R.D.; Clarke, G.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. file  url
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  Title The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Exp Med Biol  
  Volume 817 Issue Pages 373-403  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; *Behavior; Brain/*physiology; Brain Diseases/therapy; Cognition; Humans; Intestines/microbiology; Microbiome; Microbiota/*physiology; Probiotics/pharmacology; Signal Transduction; Tryptophan/metabolism  
  Abstract There is increasing evidence that host-microbe interactions play a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Alterations in gut microbial composition is associated with marked changes in behaviors relevant to mood, pain and cognition, establishing the critical importance of the bi-directional pathway of communication between the microbiota and the brain in health and disease. Dysfunction of the microbiome-brain-gut axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Bacterial colonization of the gut is central to postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system (CNS) programming and signaling, including the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, there is now expanding evidence for the view that enteric microbiota plays a role in early programming and later response to acute and chronic stress. This view is supported by studies in germ-free mice and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic agents or antibiotics. Although communication between gut microbiota and the CNS are not fully elucidated, neural, hormonal, immune and metabolic pathways have been suggested. Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 2003  
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Author (up) Lee, E.H.; Tsai, M.J.; Tang, Y.P.; Chai, C.Y. file  url
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  Title Differential biochemical mechanisms mediate locomotor stimulation effects by caffeine and nicotine in rats Type Journal Article
  Year 1987 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 427-430  
  Keywords Animals; Brain/drug effects/*metabolism; Caffeine/*pharmacology; Cyclic AMP/metabolism; Dopamine/metabolism; Kinetics; Male; Motor Activity/*drug effects; Nicotine/*pharmacology; Norepinephrine/metabolism; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Tryptophan/metabolism; Tyrosine/metabolism  
  Abstract Effects of caffeine and the interactive effects of caffeine and nicotine on locomotor activity in rats were examined in the present study. Other than confirming previous reports that both drugs enhanced locomotion, we have also found that their effects on activity were additive. Meanwhile, results of various biochemical measures have revealed that at the minimum effective doses of caffeine and nicotine which facilitated locomotor activity, only one biochemical system was preferentially influenced by either drug alone. The most significant findings were that caffeine stimulated the release of catecholamines and nicotine decreased the concentrations of tyrosine and tryptophan in brain. The combined effects of caffeine and nicotine on these brain amines were not different from those of each drug alone. Together with the report that caffeine and nicotine had differential actions on different activity measures, the present results support the hypothesis that caffeine and nicotine affect locomotor activity via different neurochemical mechanisms.  
  Call Number Serial 1576  
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