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  Title Projected Economic Effect of Climate Change on Counties in the United States Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Climate change; Economic damage; Economic effect; United States; Counties  
  Abstract This graphic represents the projected economic effects of climate change on counties in the United States by 2080-2099. Areas in shades of red are counties that will lose a percentage of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while areas in shades of green are counties that may actually increase their GDP.  
  Call Number Serial 1865  
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Author (up) Albani, M.; Medvigy, D.; Hurtt, G.C.; Moorcroft, P.R. file  url
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  Title The contributions of land-use change, CO2 fertilization, and climate variability to the Eastern US carbon sink Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Global Change Biol  
  Volume 12 Issue 12 Pages 2370-2390  
  Keywords Climate Variability; CO2 Fertilization; CO2 Fluxes; Disturbance History; Eastern United States; Ecosystem Demography (ED) Model; Forest Harvesting; Land-use History; Regional-scale Uptake; Terrestrial Carbon Sink  
  Abstract Atmospheric measurements and land-based inventories imply that terrestrial ecosystems in the northern hemisphere are taking up significant amounts of anthropogenic cabon dioxide (CO2) emissions; however, there is considerable disagreement about the causes of this uptake, and its expected future trajectory. In this paper, we use the ecosystem demography (ED) model to quantify the contributions of disturbance history, CO2 fertilization and climate variability to the past, current, and future terrestrial carbon fluxes in the Eastern United States. The simulations indicate that forest regrowth following agricultural abandonment accounts for uptake of 0.11 Pg C yr−1 in the 1980s and 0.15 Pg C yr−1 in the 1990s, and regrowth following forest harvesting accounts for an additional 0.1 Pg C yr−1 of uptake during both these decades. The addition of CO2 fertilization into the model simulations increases carbon uptake rates to 0.38 Pg C yr−1 in the 1980s and 0.47 Pg C yr−1 in the 1990s. Comparisons of predicted aboveground carbon uptake to regional-scale forest inventory measurements indicate that the model's predictions in the absence of CO2 fertilization are 14% lower than observed, while in the presence of CO2 fertilization, predicted uptake rates are 28% larger than observed. Comparable results are obtained from comparisons of predicted total Net Ecosystem Productivity to the carbon fluxes observed at the Harvard Forest flux tower site and in model simulations free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. These results imply that disturbance history is the principal mechanism responsible for current carbon uptake in the Eastern United States, and that conventional biogeochemical formulations of plant growth overestimate the response of plants to rising CO2 levels. Model projections out to 2100 imply that the carbon uptake arising from forest regrowth will increasingly be dominated by forest regrowth following harvesting. Consequently, actual carbon storage declines to near zero by the end of the 21st century as the forest regrowth that has occurred since agricultural abandonment comes into equilibrium with the landscape's new disturbance regime. Incorporating interannual climate variability into the model simulations gives rise to large interannual variation in regional carbon fluxes, indicating that long-term measurements are necessary to detect the signature of processes that give rise to long-term uptake and storage.  
  Call Number Serial 875  
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Author (up) Amato, P.R. file  url
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  Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology  
  Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.  
  Call Number Serial 276  
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Author (up) Anderson, L.M.; Scrimshaw, S.C.; Fullilove, M.T.; Fielding, J.E.; Normand, J. file  url
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  Title Culturally competent healthcare systems. A systematic review Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication American Journal of Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Prev Med  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Suppl Pages 68-79  
  Keywords Communication Barriers; Cultural Diversity; *Culture; *Delivery of Health Care; Health Personnel; Humans; Language; Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care); Quality of Health Care; United States  
  Abstract Culturally competent healthcare systems-those that provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services-have the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. When clients do not understand what their healthcare providers are telling them, and providers either do not speak the client's language or are insensitive to cultural differences, the quality of health care can be compromised. We reviewed five interventions to improve cultural competence in healthcare systems-programs to recruit and retain staff members who reflect the cultural diversity of the community served, use of interpreter services or bilingual providers for clients with limited English proficiency, cultural competency training for healthcare providers, use of linguistically and culturally appropriate health education materials, and culturally specific healthcare settings. We could not determine the effectiveness of any of these interventions, because there were either too few comparative studies, or studies did not examine the outcome measures evaluated in this review: client satisfaction with care, improvements in health status, and inappropriate racial or ethnic differences in use of health services or in received and recommended treatment.  
  Call Number Serial 1759  
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Author (up) Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M. file  url
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  Title Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Aging and Physical Activity Abbreviated Journal J Aging Phys Act  
  Volume 23 Issue 2 Pages 237-246  
  Keywords African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States  
  Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.  
  Call Number Serial 1292  
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Author (up) Aspinall, P.J. file  url
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  Title Describing the “white” ethnic group and its composition in medical research Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 47 Issue 11 Pages 1797-1808  
  Keywords Canada; Ethnic Groups/*classification; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification; Great Britain; Humans; *Minority Groups; *Research; Social Identification; State Medicine; United States  
  Abstract The routine use in medical research of an ostensibly homogeneous “white” category in ethnic group classifications has meant that white minorities, such as the Irish, Turks and Cypriots, have remained hidden, even though such groups are subject to discrimination and disadvantage common to other minority groups. The terms “white” and “Caucasian” are frequently and increasingly employed in the scientific literature in spite of widespread concern about the medicalization of race. Moreover, in Great Britain ethnic monitoring of hospital inpatients has revealed negligible interest in utilising codes that subdivide the white group. Yet recent research has shown, for example, substantially elevated age standardised limiting long-term illness rates in the first generation Irish and excess mortality in the second generation living in Britain. The health needs of these white minorities can only properly be identified through the availability of census denominator data of the kind now collected in the U.S. and Canadian decennial census questions on ethnic origin. The opportunity for government to make such provision in the forthcoming Great Britain 2001 Census should be seized whilst it is still available and recommendations for subdividing the “white” group are made.  
  Call Number Serial 105  
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Author (up) Bakan, D. file  url
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  Title Behaviorism and American urbanization Type Journal Article
  Year 1966 Publication Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Abbreviated Journal J. Hist. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 5-28  
  Keywords Behaviorism; United States, Ideological  
  Abstract An attempt “to explain the development of behaviorism in the United States by placing it within the larger cultural, ideological and historical context of the American experience.” (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Call Number Serial 2114  
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Author (up) Brandt, A.M. file  url
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  Title Polio, politics, publicity, and duplicity: ethical aspects in the development of the Salk vaccine Type Journal Article
  Year 1978 Publication International Journal of Health Services : Planning, Administration, Evaluation Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Serv  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 257-270  
  Keywords Child; Drug Evaluation/methods; Federal Government; Government Regulation; History, 20th Century; *Human Experimentation; Humans; Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/*history; Politics; United States; Public Health Service  
  Abstract This paper is an historical account of the discovery, testing, and early distribution of the Salk polio vaccine. The discovery posed fundamental dilemmas of medical research, pharmaceutical production, and public health. This paper assesses the ethical problems which arose, and examines critically their resolution. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (March of Dimes) financed and directed the discovery of the vaccine, subsequent field trials, and early distribution. The Foundation's role is analyzed with special attention to the conflicts between its philanthropic and scientific functions. The reat public demand which the discovery of the vaccine generated created a need for federal control which was only partly met. The federal government did not have sufficient institutional and legal mechanisms to assure the safety of the vaccine and protect the public. This discussion illustrates the failure of the government to keep pace with medical technology.  
  Call Number Serial 187  
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Author (up) Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; McLaughlin, M.R. file  url
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  Title Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Water Research Abbreviated Journal Water Res  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 96-103  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Bacteria/drug effects/*genetics/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics; Manure/*microbiology; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; *Microbiota; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics/metabolism; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Southeastern United States; Sus scrofa; Waste Water/*microbiology; Antibiotic resistance; Campylobacter; Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO); Lagoon wastewater; Salmonella; Swine; Microbiome  
  Abstract The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future “downstream” implications from both an environmental and public health perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 1943  
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Author (up) Butler, C.J. file  url
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  Title The disproportionate effect of global warming on the arrival dates of short-distance migratory birds in North America Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Ibis Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 145 Issue 3 Pages 484-495  
  Keywords Global climate change; Avian; Birds; Nesting; United States; North America; Migrants; Migration; New York; Massachusetts  
  Abstract Recent studies have shown that, in response to global climate change, diverse avian taxa are now nesting measurably earlier (< 10 days) in both the United States and Britain. Similarly, several studies on European birds have now demonstrated that a variety of species (although not all) are arriving increasingly early. However, surprisingly, widespread changes in North American migrant phenology have not been demonstrated. It is hypothesized that short-distance migrants (birds that winter in the southern United States) may be quicker to adapt to climate change than long-distance migrants (birds that winter south of the United States), as short-distance migrants can respond to meteorological cues indicating weather conditions to the north whereas long-distance migrants must rely on photoperiod. This study examined the first arrival dates of 103 migrant birds in New York and Massachusetts and found that, on average, all migrants arrived significantly earlier during the period 19511993 than the period 19031950. From 19511993 birds wintering in the southern United States arrived on average 13 days earlier while birds wintering in South America arrived 4 days earlier. Although a change in observer effort cannot be quantified and may be a source of bias, a comparison of the numbers of reporting observers during the 1930s and the 1980s revealed no significant difference. These results are consistent with those expected under a scenario of global warming.  
  Call Number Serial 996  
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