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Author (up) Fisher, M.C.; Henk, D.A.; Briggs, C.J.; Brownstein, J.S.; Madoff, L.C.; McCraw, S.L.; Gurr, S.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 484 Issue 7393 Pages 186-194  
  Keywords Animals; Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology/*microbiology/veterinary; *Ecosystem; Extinction, Biological; Food Supply; Fungi/classification/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity; Humans; Mycoses/*epidemiology/microbiology/*veterinary; Plants/*microbiology; Virulence/genetics  
  Abstract The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide.  
  Call Number Serial 2168  
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Author (up) Fugier, E.; Pappas, G.; Gorvel, J.-P. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Virulence factors in brucellosis: implications for aetiopathogenesis and treatment Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine Abbreviated Journal Expert Rev Mol Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 35 Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Animals; Brucella/metabolism/*pathogenicity; Brucellosis/*drug therapy/immunology/*microbiology; Humans; Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism; Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism; *Virulence  
  Abstract Brucella species are responsible for the global zoonotic disease brucellosis. These intracellular pathogens express a set of factors – including lipopolysaccharides, virulence regulator proteins and phosphatidylcholine – to ensure their full virulence. Some virulence factors are essential for invasion of the host cell, whereas others are crucial to avoid elimination by the host. They allow Brucella spp. to survive and proliferate within its replicative vacuole and enable the bacteria to escape detection by the host immune system. Several strategies have been used to develop animal vaccines against brucellosis, but no adequate vaccine yet exists to cure the disease in humans. This is probably due to the complicated pathophysiology of human Brucella spp. infection, which is different than in animal models. Here we review Brucella spp. virulence factors and how they control bacterial trafficking within the host cell.  
  Call Number Serial 390  
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Author (up) Griffin, A.S.; West, S.A.; Buckling, A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Cooperation and competition in pathogenic bacteria Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 430 Issue 7003 Pages 1024-1027  
  Keywords Altruism; Analysis of Variance; *Biological Evolution; Competitive Behavior; Cooperative Behavior; Host-Parasite Interactions; Humans; *Models, Biological; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classification/genetics/*pathogenicity/*physiology; Siderophores/*biosynthesis; Virulence  
  Abstract Explaining altruistic cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for evolutionary biology. One solution to this problem is if costly cooperative behaviours are directed towards relatives. This idea of kin selection has been hugely influential and applied widely from microorganisms to vertebrates. However, a problem arises if there is local competition for resources, because this leads to competition between relatives, reducing selection for cooperation. Here we use an experimental evolution approach to test the effect of the scale of competition, and how it interacts with relatedness. The cooperative trait that we examine is the production of siderophores, iron-scavenging agents, in the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As expected, our results show that higher levels of cooperative siderophore production evolve in the higher relatedness treatments. However, our results also show that more local competition selects for lower levels of siderophore production and that there is a significant interaction between relatedness and the scale of competition, with relatedness having less effect when the scale of competition is more local. More generally, the scale of competition is likely to be of particular importance for the evolution of cooperation in microorganisms, and also the virulence of pathogenic microorganisms, because cooperative traits such as siderophore production have an important role in determining virulence.  
  Call Number Serial 1552  
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Author (up) Hiller, N.L.; Bhattacharjee, S.; van Ooij, C.; Liolios, K.; Harrison, T.; Lopez-Estrano, C.; Haldar, K. file  url
openurl 
  Title A host-targeting signal in virulence proteins reveals a secretome in malarial infection Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 306 Issue 5703 Pages 1934-1937  
  Keywords *Amino Acid Motifs; Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Computational Biology; Cytosol/metabolism; Erythrocytes/*metabolism/parasitology; Genes, Protozoan; Humans; Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/metabolism; Molecular Sequence Data; Plasmodium falciparum/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism/*pathogenicity; *Protein Sorting Signals; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Protein Transport; Protozoan Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/metabolism; Transgenes; Vacuoles/metabolism/parasitology; Virulence Factors/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism  
  Abstract Malaria parasites secrete proteins across the vacuolar membrane into the erythrocyte, inducing modifications linked to disease and parasite survival. We identified an 11-amino acid signal required for the secretion of proteins from the Plasmodium falciparum vacuole to the human erythrocyte. Bioinformatics predicted a secretome of >320 proteins and conservation of the signal across parasite species. Functional studies indicated the predictive value of the signal and its role in targeting virulence proteins to the erythrocyte and implicated its recognition by a receptor/transporter. Erythrocyte modification by the parasite may involve plasmodial heat shock proteins and be vastly more complex than hitherto realized.  
  Call Number Serial 1797  
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Author (up) Vikram, A.; Jesudhasan, P.R.; Jayaprakasha, G.K.; Pillai, S.D.; Jayaraman, A.; Patil, B.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Citrus flavonoid represses Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and motility in S. Typhimurium LT2 Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication International Journal of Food Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Food Microbiol  
  Volume 145 Issue 1 Pages 28-36  
  Keywords Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects; Bacterial Proteins/drug effects; Biofilms/drug effects/growth & development; Cell Line, Tumor; Citrus/*chemistry; Flagella/drug effects; Flavanones/*pharmacology; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; *Genomic Islands; Humans; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Salmonella typhimurium/*drug effects/genetics/growth & development/pathogenicity; Virulence  
  Abstract Salmonellosis is one of the leading health problems worldwide. With the rise of drug resistance strains, it has become imperative to identify alternative strategies to counter bacterial infection. Natural products were used historically to identify novel compounds with various bioactivities. Citrus species is a rich source of flavonoids. Naringenin, a flavonone, is present predominantly in grapefruit. Previously we have demonstrated that naringenin is potent inhibitor of cell-cell signaling. The current study was undertaken to understand the effect of naringenin on Salmonella Typhimurium LT2. The cDNA microarrays were employed to study the response of S. Typhimurium to naringenin treatment. Naringenin specifically repressed 24 genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and down-regulated 17 genes involved in flagellar and motility. Furthermore, phenotypic assays support the result of microarray analysis. In addition, naringenin seems to repress SPI-1 in pstS/hilD-dependent manner. Altogether the data suggest that naringenin attenuated S. Typhimurium virulence and cell motility. This is the first molecular evidence to demonstrate effect of naringenin on bacterial virulence and cell motility.  
  Call Number Serial 1580  
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