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Author (up) Gathmann, B.; Brand, M.; Schiebener, J. file  url
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  Title One executive function never comes alone: monitoring and its relation to working memory, reasoning, and different executive functions Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Cognitive Processing Abbreviated Journal Cogn Process  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 13-29  
  Keywords Adult; Executive Function/*physiology; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Thinking/*physiology; Balanced Switching Task; Cognitive control; Executive functions; Monitoring; Working memory  
  Abstract Monitoring is involved in many daily tasks and is described in several theoretical approaches of executive functioning. This study investigated the relative relationship of cognitive processes that are theoretically relevant to monitoring, such as concept formation, reasoning, working memory, and general cognitive control functions. Data from 699 participants who performed the Balanced Switching Task, aiming at capturing monitoring, were used. Subsamples also performed standard tasks assessing the processes assumed to be related to monitoring. Structural equation modeling revealed that general cognitive control processes are particularly relevant. They mediate the relationship between working memory, reasoning, and monitoring. Updating and maintaining information, as well as concluding from information which strategies can guide behavior toward predefined goals, is required for the ability to exert general cognitive control, which again may be relevant for implementing strategies in a goal-directed way. Together, these processes seem to be necessary to adequately monitor behavior in complex tasks.  
  Call Number Serial 2009  
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Author (up) Ruthsatz, J.; Ruthsatz, K.; Stephens, K.R. file  url
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  Title Putting practice into perspective: Child prodigies as evidence of innate talent Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Intelligence Abbreviated Journal Intelligence  
  Volume 45 Issue Pages 60-65  
  Keywords Child prodigy; Intelligence; Working memory; Autism  
  Abstract The debate over whether exceptional abilities are primarily the product of nature or nurture began centuries ago and continues to this day. Recently, much of this debate took place within the context of considering the abilities of exceptional musicians. Several of such studies suggested that general intelligence and domain specific skills, both of which fall on the nature side of the spectrum, play a significant role in the development of musical abilities. In this paper, the author demonstrates that those studies which attempted to argue for a purely nurture-driven account of such musical talent, moreover, merely showed that practice has some role to play in the development of talent; they failed to rule out the possibility that factors such as general intelligence and domain specific skills also contribute to the development of exceptional performance abilities. If the evidence generated by studies of exceptional musicians provides a strong basis for believing that nature is the primary driver of exceptional talent, that evidence receives a powerful boost from recent studies of child prodigies. Child prodigies provide a particularly fascinating view on the nature versus nurture debate because of the extremely young age at which the prodigies demonstrate their remarkable abilities, thus, limiting the extent to which their abilities can be solely the result of extreme dedication to practice. Despite this fact, some have still argued that child prodigies' abilities are nurture-driven. Recent research, however, demonstrates that child prodigies' skills are highly dependent on a few features of their cognitive profiles, including elevated general IQs, exceptional working memories, and elevated attention to detail. Other innate characteristics of the child prodigies predict the domain in which the prodigies will excel. Music prodigies, for example, tend to score better with respect to their general IQs, visual spatial abilities, and working memories, than art prodigies. This new research on a group of exceptional and exceptionally young performers strongly supports nature as the primary driver of extreme talent.  
  Call Number Serial 1106  
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Author (up) Stefani, M.R.; Moghaddam, B. file  url
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  Title Effects of repeated treatment with amphetamine or phencyclidine on working memory in the rat Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behavioural Brain Research  
  Volume 134 Issue 1-2 Pages 267-274  
  Keywords Phencyclidine; Psychosis; Working memory; Schizophrenia; Sensitization; Behavior  
  Abstract Repeated exposure to psychomotor stimulants produces long-lasting molecular, cellular and locomotor behavioral changes. Such changes are likely to contribute to the development of drug addiction and psychosis. It is not clear whether these durable changes are accompanied by lasting changes in cognition. We examined the long-term effects of repeated treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) or amphetamine on working memory, using a discrete, paired-trials, delayed-alternation task sensitive to the acute effects of PCP and amphetamine, and to the integrity of the prefrontal cortex. Twice daily treatment with PCP (5.0 mg/kg) or amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) for 5 days did not produce lasting, significant impairments in alternation performance in comparison to either pre-treatment baseline performance or to the vehicle-treated group. Subsequent challenge doses of PCP (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) produced alternation deficits in vehicle, PCP, and amphetamine pre-treated groups that were dependent on dose, but not on pre-treatment regimen. However, rats pre-treated with PCP showed a trend towards sensitization in response to PCP challenge. The present data suggest that psychostimulant treatment regimens that are reported to produce long-lasting changes in neural morphology and locomotor behavior may not produce equally durable changes in working memory.  
  Call Number Serial 1369  
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